Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2009

Full Length Research Paper

Review on the effect of online education on job motivation

Egriboyun Ramazan
  • Egriboyun Ramazan
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Asilhan Meral
  • Asilhan Meral
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Cerit Bekir
  • Cerit Bekir
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Temiz Yasin
  • Temiz Yasin
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Ünal Canan Hancioglu
  • Ünal Canan Hancioglu
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Ekici Emek Ekim
  • Ekici Emek Ekim
  • Ministry of National Education, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 12 August 2022
  •  Accepted: 27 October 2022
  •  Published: 31 December 2022


The aim of this study is to compile the literature in the context of business motivation of the online education process, the importance of which is once again understood in educational sciences during the pandemic process. When literature is looked at, it is clearly seen that the importance and effectiveness of distance education has increased with the pandemic. As a result, the quality and quantity of distance education has been questioned before, it is seen that distance education is considered as an opportunity with the pandemic.


Key words: Distance education, business motivation, pandemic.


Job motivation


While motivation is defined as an internal force that initiates an individual's actions and behaviors, work motivation plays a similar role for work-life situation and quality. In addition, work motivation can be counted among the generally accepted standards for business and life. Motivation researchers have discussed work motivation in many studies as well as motivation theories (Rainey, 2000). There is still a need to learn more about this in terms of employee motivation to work.


On the other hand, work motivation is a very important issue for the development, improvement of education and training. Literature on motivations to work are (a )motives, motivations for equipment (content); (b) positive attributes, job role and broader environment (context); (c) selective and effort (process) related mechanisms and priorities. From a broader perspective, many determining factors play roles in this process, including the larger aspects, processes, and work environment, apparently as it relates to motivation (Kanfer et al., 2017).


Another study discusses the July 2004 “Academy of Management Review” Special Topic Forum on the Future of Job Motivation Theory. The researcher thinks that while the forum opens up new research guidelines to help understand what motivates employees to work, it says little about why employees should be motivated to work. There is a direct link between early developments in motivation theory and the history of philosophical and psychological ethics. It is stated that motivational efforts can exert control over individual moral autonomy. Making the connection between meaningful work and work motivation theory will encourage further research and exploration for so-called meaningful work. The researcher draws attention to the connection between employee motivation and productivity in individual and group performance (Michaelson, 2005).


Major motivational theories, on the other hand, are classified as those that deal with either external causes or internal processes. The later helps explain motivation, while the first identifies levels for improving employee motivation and performance. Seven key strategies for improving work motivation are distilled from extrinsic theories. Explanatory programs for the implementation of these strategies, programs aimed to create organizations where employees are both better satisfied and more productive have been defined. Suggestions are made to improve the science and technology of work motivation (Katzell and Thompson, 1990).


Distance education and online education


With distance education, there has been a rapid change in education systems in the world. There has been a compulsory transition from face-to-face education to online education. With this transition, virtual classrooms have emerged in homes. While there are online courses in virtual classroom environments, virtual classroom management is of great importance in terms of effective learning and teaching. When we look at the history of distance education, it was also known as the letter teaching method in the early days. It is a teaching method based on the educational relationship between the teacher and the student. Lessons, assignments and exams are sent by mail at regular intervals (Geray, 1978). The convergence of information technology and enabling technologies has had a serious impact on the lifestyle of every individual and has become more dependent on this emerging technology. Using portable devices such as iPods, laptops, tablets and smartphones with a wireless network strengthens mobility and mobile learning, thus allowing the process of teaching and learning beyond the traditional classroom. For example, in one study, although technology was used for e-learning in the early stages of information technology, later internet courses were opened instead of class rooms. Communication with another group was limited to email only. This e-learning period was limited to special places (eg classroom) and users were asked for their opinions on the learning process and information distribution, and a positive activity was observed in the results (Hasan and Singhal, 2020).


Adult education provided by universities using online education methods is undoubtedly inseparable from traditional universities with higher dropout rates. Dropping out of school at a distance learning university is due to professional, academic, health, family and personal reasons.  Limiting drop-out is very important, and therefore the ability to predict student dropouts can be very useful. A study attempting to determine the most appropriate comprehensive learning algorithm for students' drop-out predictions using the most informative features investigated the reasons for drop-out to determine on a large scale if students were affected by the distance education they received over time and to detect these changes. The data used was provided by the Greek Open University Student Registry and additional data were collected through an interview-based questionnaire. The most informative features were found to be student gender, attendance at the first face-to-face meeting, and grades for the first two written assignments. Based on these features, a web-based application that can automatically recognize students who are likely to drop out has been created and developed to help teachers identify students at risk even at the beginning of the academic year (Pierrakeas et al., 2020).


Distance Learning is the education where teachers and learners are not physically in the same environment and communication is provided over the internet network. In distance education, education can take place synchronously or asynchronously. It offers educational opportunities to large audiences. In this respect, it provides economy. Open and distance learning is to provide marginalized students with equal opportunity to learn and understand learning materials across borders. Playing an important role in its promotion, technology provides teachers and students with greater flexibility because it often works beyond time and distance. The advanced nature of technology makes the educational process more useful and also provides teachers with innovative technology-based applications and tools to enhance students' knowledge to promote open and distance learning. An important aspect of the adoption and use of technology in education is that it is based on open and distance education (Sezgin, 2021; ??man, 2008).


Technological innovative methods directly change student and teacher interaction. The unlimited use of technology in learning provides students with the condition and opportunity to communicate with their teachers anytime and anywhere to solve educational problems. For this reason, while emphasizing some other important aspects of technology to encourage unlimited learning in addition to distance education, studies investigating the adoption, use and impact of technology in open and distance education continue today (Ali and Alam, 2020). However, in the studies on service quality or customer satisfaction in the context of open and distance education in Malaysia, there are findings that the technological problems experienced or that may be experienced during education directly affect the quality of education (Amin and Piaralal, 2020). Independent study habits may not be beneficial for underdeveloped individuals. Feedback and corrections regarding learning difficulties and learning deficiencies may not be made at the same time as the problems experienced.


Virtual classrooms and education


In the virtual classroom environment, the teacher can present the lesson live, share the course materials and visuals on the screen, the students can communicate with each other and with their teachers in the correspondence area, and the students can watch the lesson later on video. . microphone and camera audio and video. For this reason, e-learning can be much more effective than other one-way, passive learning methods (Kavrako?lu, 2002). Teaching in the virtual classroom environment provides great convenience for teachers and students. The most important advantage of virtual classrooms over real classrooms is that they offer the opportunity to be involved in the learning environment from all over the world (Ebbers et al., 2003).


Virtual classroom environments have advantages and disadvantages. It is possible to encounter problems arising from infrastructure deficiencies such as slow internet, constant internet interruptions, camera, microphone and computer hardware in virtual classroom environments. McBrien et al. (2009) stated that there are technical problems regarding the use of technology in virtual classrooms; however, they state that the problems in the course follow-up can be solved by solving them in a short time. In a traditional classroom setting, shy students cannot express their thoughts openly. One of the biggest advantages of the virtual classroom environment is that students in this structure can express their thoughts comfortably and actively participate in the lesson through correspondence or microphone. Virtual classrooms, which are an interactive environment, are environments where the student is active in the lesson, in a teacher-student cooperative structure, where content-student interaction can be provided at a high rate according to needs, and which supports student participation in the lesson. Virtual classrooms, which offer an interactive educational environment, contribute 50% to success (Çak?rer, 2002).


Studies on virtual classroom environment in the literature have generally focused on students' success and motivation. Atici (2004) aimed to determine the effect of virtual learning environments based on social knowledge building on student achievement and attitudes. It has been concluded that the virtual learning environment developed within the scope of this research has a facilitating effect on learning and increases teacher-student communication in the virtual classroom environment. Özmen (2012) aimed to determine the effect of social network supported distance education applications on student achievement and student views. In the research, there were groups participating in social distance education applications, participating in social network supported distance education applications and participating in face-to-face environment. It has been concluded that social network-supported distance education applications are more effective in gaining behaviors at cognitive domain knowledge level, but behaviors at cognitive domain understanding level do not differ between groups. In the qualitative dimension of the study, it was concluded that the students generally expressed positive opinions about social networks and distance education.In the research conducted by Y?lmaz (2015), it was aimed at determing the effect of virtual classrooms on student achievement and the opinions of students about virtual classrooms. As a result of the research, it was concluded that virtual classroom environments can be used by positively affect student success, create a flexible environment for students with the recording feature in virtual classrooms, and students can learn at their own pace. In this study, students were positively affected by the virtual classroom environment. Since it is possible to show different 3D materials and environments in live classrooms, it is stated that two-way interaction is provided.


In addition to studies examining academic achievement, there are also studies with different variables. Bolliger et al. (2010) investigated the effect of digital media tools (sound, video, picture, etc.) on student motivation in an online environment. As a result of the research, it was seen realized that digital media tools motivates students towards the lesson.


Significant differences were identified in terms of different demographic characteristics such as class, gender, and previous experience. Li (2012) investigated the relationship between students' undesirable behaviors in virtual classrooms, teacher techniques, and various in-class communication processes and outcomes. As a result of the research, it was stated that different demographic characteristics such as age, number, registration status and previous learning status differ in students' perceptions of online media use, and teacher techniques also affect learning.


As regards undesirable behaviors of the students it was concluded that the methods used by the teachers contributed to the learning of the students.


These rapid developments in technology and the emergence of different educational demands have increased the use of virtual classrooms. The deficiencies and inadequacies in the face-to-face education system have paved the way for alternative distance education and courses to be taught in the virtual classroom environment. Educational institutions all over the world and in our country has started to use distance education, and it has become widespread especially in universities. Later, it became widespread in other education levels due to distance education conditions.With this change, it is stated that the adaptation of institutions aiming to adapt to the needs of the age is realized with e-learning, which is rapidly adopted (Duran et al., 2006). Although virtual classroom  environments  have  an important place in the

field of distance education in terms of their features and benefits in education, it is seen that the researches on this subject are not sufficient. It is important for the development of new research and applications that it contributes to the determination of the positive, negative and deficient aspects of the courses taught in the virtual classroom with the distance education system. In this direction, the aim of the research is to reveal the opinions of administrators, teachers and parents about the distance education process in secondary school, and thus to contribute to the development process of the distance education system by identifying the deficiencies and to make determinations.


While the quality and quantity of distance education was questioned before, distance education was re-evaluated as trying to bring the necessary qualifications to individuals by taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the rapidly developing information and communication technologies has triggered the development of different learning-teaching environments. In addition to these developing technologies, changes in the living conditions and habits of individuals necessitated new searches in the field of education. This situation also affects the motivation of the employees. At this point, it is a modern education approach that offers equal educational opportunities to everyone, provides education everywhere, at all ages, aims to meet the educational needs of individuals and society, and supports individual learning by using technology in education (Kaya, 2002).


With online education, the necessity of this situation has been understood once again. In order to respond to the changing educational needs of the digitalized world, various authorities see distance education, which is a form of education independent of time and space, as a solution to the understanding of contemporary education (Özen and Karaman, 2001). Distance education, which aims to meet the learning needs of disadvantaged groups, to educate a large number of learners economically and to meet the workforce needs in a short time, has become an effective high-level learning environment with individual and social learning activities.


Online education is an education and training system in which information is presented to individuals far from each other, time and space flexibility is provided, communication and interaction is ensured with technological tools and applications. It is a form of education in which the learner interacts with the environment, applications and materials offered by information, communication and instructional technologies, teaching staff, content, other learners and environments regardless of time and place. These sub-components are clearly different from the learning, teaching and communication methods of traditional education components. While learners in distance education have a role responsible for their own learning processes and the management of learning processes, educators have the role of directing, planning and implementing teaching. The communication method, on the other hand, provides various media support, dialogue and interaction that play a role in closing the physical gap between the instructor and the learners (Anderson and Garrison, 1998; Moore, 1989). When distance education is examined in terms of the effectiveness of the learning-teaching process, it is seen that this process is generally based on interaction and interaction is discussed from different contexts (Anderson and Garrison, 1998). The more interactive the offered distance education components are with each other, the higher the success, motivation, persistence and positive attitudes of the learners in the learning process. Likewise, thanks to the interactions established, the instructors can follow the development of the learners in the learning environments, give feedback and evaluate the appropriateness of the teaching strategies presented.


According to the literature, the effective and efficient execution of online courses depends on the technical knowledge of the instructor and having a student-centered, reflective and innovative attitude. Therefore, in order for simultaneous distance education environments to be as effective and successful as face-to-face education in meeting the needs of learners with different learning levels and styles; they need to know how to develop their technical skills, how to design and implement interactive activities and curricula, and how to solve problems that online students may encounter (Martin and Parker, 2014). 


In conclusion, Students' collaborative activities and interactions within the community are important factors to consider for the functioning of the community. This is also an indispensable condition for the work motivation of the employees.


Dabbagh (2007) stated the characteristics that online learners should have as follows: Having a strong academic self-image, being effective in using distance education technologies, exhibiting strong interpersonal communication skills, understanding the value of interaction and collaborative learning, controlling distance learning internally. In addition, the high motivation and positive attitudes of the learners involved in the learning process also affect the quality of the educational process. Learners should be able to direct and motivate themselves in the learning process, plan the learning process and perform the learning they need. Learners should be able to communicate with their teachers, administrators and peers and create communication channels when necessary. For this reason, measurement and evaluation can be made in the current situation by developing online measurement tools regarding the effects of online education. The study can be applied on different sample groups with quantitative methods. Measurement tools related to the subject can be developed. Awareness-raising in-service training on online education can be given. Distance education can be prepared for another possible distance education situation by taking place within the legal legislation. By continuing some of the existing education applications as distance education, the technology use skill levels of student teachers and administrators can be increased.


The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.


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