International Journal of
Medicine and Medical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Med. Med. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9723
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJMMS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 535

Review

Pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and potential health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid

Shah Waliullah
  • Shah Waliullah
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Shahmina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Google Scholar
Zeenat Ara
  • Zeenat Ara
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Shahmina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Google Scholar
Mohammed Lafi Al-Otaibi
  • Mohammed Lafi Al-Otaibi
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King Khalid University Medical City Hospital, Asser Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Google Scholar
Khurshid Alam
  • Khurshid Alam
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Shahmina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Google Scholar
Shatakshi Pant
  • Shatakshi Pant
  • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, King George’s Medical University, Shahmina Road, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 07 March 2022
  •  Accepted: 30 October 2023
  •  Published: 30 April 2024

Abstract

Spinal cord injury (SCI), is a life changing threatening neurological condition that completely changes patients’ life. It has been shown that early treatment soon after the injury may improve neurological recovery. To date, no therapeutic modalities exist that have shown very positive effect on neurological outcomes. However, recent clinical and preclinical studies have shown little hope for the treatment of SCI. In medical management, recent advances have significantly improved diagnosis, stabilization, survival rate, and well-being of SCI patients, but there has been little progression in the treatment. An important strategy for SCI treatment is to reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, and oxidative stress. Today, the main focus is on neutraceuticals as they are natural compounds, easy to accommodate and have high antioxidant properties which diminish the toxic effects of oxidative stress responsible for the progression of several pathologies of the nervous system. Omega-3 fatty acids are important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with some roles in normal cellular metabolism. They have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and it has been proven to be beneficial in ameliorating inflammation in different diseases and thus improves neurological outcomes after neuronal injury. PUFA helps in suppressing the Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers responsible for SCI inflammatory events, Leukotriene?5, thromboxane?3 and prostaglandin?3 are derived from essential fatty acids, and are known to be therapeutically important in inflammatory conditions as well as for mental health. Fatty fishes such as salmon, mullet and mackerel are the best sources of EPA and DHA and thus have significant health benefits.

Key words: Osteoporosis, omega-3 fatty acid, spinal cord injury (SCI), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC).