Even though exclusive breastfeeding is a cornerstone of child survival and child health because it provides essential, replaceable nutrition for child growth and development, there were scanty of studies on this area in the country, particularly in the Bishoftu town. The community based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 394 mothers-paired with children less than six months selected by stratified random sampling technique in Bishoftu town. The multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to identify the factors associated with the exclusive breast-feeding practice of mothers. The model fitness was checked by the deviance change (P-value = 0.000), and Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fittest (P-value = 0.28). Only about half, 52.5% (95%CI: 47.48%, 57.56%) of the mothers have exclusively breastfed their infants in the town. Residing in the urban (AOR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.07, 3.33), having inadequate knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI: 1.46, 6.98), unemployment (AOR= 2.87; 95% CI: 1.65, 5.00), attending antenatal care (ANC) one to three times (AOR= 4.56; 95% CI: 1.98, 10.50), delivering by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (AOR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91), not having postnatal care (PNC) visit (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.23) and having positive attitude of exclusive breastfeeding (AOR= 6.11; 95%CI: 1.56, 23.85) were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the study area. The level of exclusive breastfeeding is still low (52.5%) in the town. Residence, employment status, number of ANC visits, type of delivery, knowledge, and attitude of mothers were found to be significantly associated with the exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, strengthening the efforts on the availability of basic services, promoting exclusive breastfeeding towards changing the attitude, encouraging the mothers to deliver at health facilities, promoting its importance, particularly for mothers residing in the rural area is paramount.