International Journal of
Vocational and Technical Education

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Voc. Tech. Educ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-534X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJVTE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 115

Full Length Research Paper

Challenges and opportunities for the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Somalia: A case for Puntland

Farah Abdiqani Ahmed
  • Farah Abdiqani Ahmed
  • Hayaan Institute for Research and Policy, Garowe, Puntland, Somalia.
  • Google Scholar
Farah Dahir Abshir
  • Farah Dahir Abshir
  • Hayaan Institute for Research and Policy, Garowe, Puntland, Somalia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 10 March 2022
  •  Accepted: 31 May 2022
  •  Published: 30 June 2022


The purpose of this paper is to examine the context and circumstances surrounding technical and vocational education training (TVET) in Somalia in general, and Puntland State in particular, in order to have a positive impact on reducing chronic youth unemployment, which currently stands at 67% across the country. The existing condition, difficulties, and prospects of the TVET education industry in Puntland were surveyed in the first section using secondary sources. Second, a quantitative survey was undertaken using the questionnaire approach to explain Puntland's TVET difficulties and potential to diverse stakeholders. The study's findings suggest that insufficient competent teachers, gender imbalance ratios among teachers in some districts, lack of necessary instructional materials, an imbalance in the distribution of TVET facilities, and a lack of public awareness of its value plague TVET facilities across Puntland. The participating governmental ministries have a lot of administrative overlap because they all want to get their hands on the sector's international donor fund. Another important finding of the poll is that university graduates are frequently unemployed due to a lack of automation for available occupations. Puntland's TVET education also lacks clarity on the roles of the private and governmental sectors, as well as a uniform and unified curriculum. To fulfill enterprise and industry standards, fair access to TVET, increasing its quality and relevance, the government's involvement in controlling the sector's delivery, and financing mechanisms are all vital.


Key words: Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), Puntland State, Federal Government of Somali (FGS), skilled worker, standardized curriculum, gender disparity.