International Journal of
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Water Res. Environ. Eng.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6613
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 343

Full Length Research Paper

Study of major and trace elements in groundwater of Birsinghpur Area, Satna District Madhya Pradesh, India

R.N. Tiwari
  • R.N. Tiwari
  • Department of Geology, Government P.G. Science College Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • Google Scholar
Shankar Mishra
  • Shankar Mishra
  • Department of Chemistry, P.G. College Semariya, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India
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Prabhat Pandey
  • Prabhat Pandey
  • Department of Physics, Government P.G. Science College Rewa, Madhya Pradesh India
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  •  Accepted: 04 June 2013
  •  Published: 31 July 2013



The present paper deals with major and trace elements geochemistry from the groundwater of Birsinghpur area, Satna district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Geologically, the area comprises sandstone and shale formations of the Proterozoic Upper Vindhyan Supergroup. The study reveals that the water is hard to very hard (The classification as hard to very hard is possibly based on incorrect analytical data); the elevated hardness is attributed to the calcareous nature of the aquifer. The concentrations of cations are characterized by Ca >Mg> Na> K. Elevated concentrations of calcium (possibly incorrect analytical data) in some localities are related to the aquifer lithology. Concentrations of magnesium, sodium and potassium are generally within the permissible limits. The concentration of anions are characterized by HCO3 > SO4 > Cl > NO3 >F. Bicarbonate and sulphate concentrations exceed the permissible limits in a few samples; elevated concentrations appear to be related to the aquifer lithology. The fluoride concentration exceeds the desirable limit in some areas; the elevated fluoride values are attributed to the application of chemical fertilizers in agriculture and to the occurrence of fluoride bearing minerals in shale formation. Six trace elements (Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cd) were also analysed. The iron concentrations ranged from 0.27 to 2.98 mg/L, exceeding the permissible limit in drinking water in 4% of the samples mainly in lateritic aquifers Nickel, and cadmium concentrations are well within the permissible limits. The manganese concentrations ranged from 0.20 to 0.282 mg/L, 30% of the samples exceeding the desirable limit: the elevated manganese concentrations are associated with iron ores (?) as well as lateritic mining. The elevated concentrations of trace elements are combined effects of geogenic sources as well as of mining activities and excessive use of chemical fertilizers. It is recommended to control anthropogenic activities adequately in order to minimise the pollution problems.


Key words: Major and trace elements, groundwater, Birsinghpur, Satna, Madhya Pradesh, India.