International NGO Journal

  • Abbreviation: Int. NGOJ
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8225
  • DOI: 10.5897/INGOJ
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 264


The parallel state: Neoliberalism in Haiti and the reliance on NGOs

Jean Max Charles
  • Jean Max Charles
  • Department of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Florida Gulf Cost University, The Water School, AB9, Rm 333 10501 FGCU Blvd, Fort Myers, United States.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 02 March 2023
  •  Accepted: 23 March 2023
  •  Published: 31 May 2023


In this paper, the author illustrates some pervasive consequences of the implementation of Neoliberal policies in Haiti. He argues that the implementation of neoliberalism destroyed the Haitian agriculture, provoked a massive rural-to-urban migration, and weakened the state by depriving it of the capacity to cater to the basic needs of the Haitian people. As the state is weakened, the Haitian population has begun to rely more and more on NGOs for public service delivery, particularly in the areas of education and health care. Moreover, the article stresses that NGOs’ relevance and importance have been increasing during the last three decades. This happens at such a level that they began to be seen as a parallel state.


Key words: NGOs, Neoliberalism, liberalization, depeasantization, parallel state.