Journal of
Geography and Regional Planning

  • Abbreviation: J. Geogr. Reg. Plann.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2070-1845
  • DOI: 10.5897/JGRP
  • Start Year: 2008
  • Published Articles: 395

Full Length Research Paper

Environmental sustainability in local governments: A case of Turkish municipalities

Seda Yıldırım
  • Seda Yıldırım
  • Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences,Namık Kemal University, TekirdaÄŸ, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Seda H. Bostancı
  • Seda H. Bostancı
  • Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Namık Kemal University, TekirdaÄŸ, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar
Seyfettin ErdoÄŸan
  • Seyfettin ErdoÄŸan
  • Department of Economics, Faculty of Political Science, Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 20 September 2017
  •  Accepted: 17 October 2017
  •  Published: 31 December 2017


Arar AA (2002). Yerel Gündem 21 (The Local Agenda 21). DışiÅŸleri Bakanlığı Yayınları, Uluslararası Ekonomik Sorunlar Dergisi. VI Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 July 2017).


Atvur S (2009). Local Agenda 21 and Environment: The Case of Antalya City Council. CU J. Soc. Sci. 35(2):231-241.


Bostancı SH (2015). Sustainability Strategies and Projects of Turkish Municipalities. (Eds. Ken D. Thomas). Handbook of Research on Sustainable Development and Economics 4:56-71. IGI Global.


Connelly S (2002). Public Involvement in Local Agenda 21: The Impact Of Local Authority Policy Processes. Department of Town and Regional Planning, University of Sheffield, September Thesis submitted for the degree of PhD.


Eckerberg K, Forsberg B (1998). Implementing Agenda 21 In Local Government: The Swedish Experience. Local Environment 3(3):333-347.


Ellis G, Motherway B, Neill-William JV, Hand, U (2004). Towards A Green Isle? Local Sustainable Development on the Island of Ireland. A Report for the Centre for Cross Border Studies. January 2004.


Emas R (2015). Brief for GSDR 2015. The Concept of Sustainable Development: Definition and Defining Principles. Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 June 2017).


International Conference on Language, Education and Innovation (ICLEI) (2017). About ICLEI. Who we are, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 June 2017).


Issues from The South. Environ. Impact. Assess. Rev. 1996(16):309-320.


Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (2017). Investments. Environment, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 31 July 2017).


Kates RW, Parris, TM, Leiserowitz AA (2016). Editorial-What Is Sustainable Development? Goals. Indicators. Values and Practice. Environment Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 July 2017).


KeleÅŸ R, Hamamcı C, Çoban A (2012). Çevre Politikası. Ankara: Ä°mge Kitabevi Yayınları.


Kern K, Koll C, Schophaus M (2004). Local Agenda 21 in Germany: An inter - and intranational comparison, WZB Discussion Paper, No. SP IV 2004-104.


KOMMUNESPEILET (2016). Role of Local Governments in the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, Retrieved


Lafferty WM, Eckerberg K (2009). From Earth Summit to Local Agenda 21-Working Towards Sustainable Development. Earthscan.


Mehta P (1996). Local Agenda 21: Practical Experiences and Emerging


Moriarty J (2011). Qualitative Methods Overview. NIHR. School for Social Care Research London School of Economics and Political Science Houghton Street London.


Organisation For Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) (2008). Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey 2008. (OECD Çevresel Performans Ä°ncelemeleri). Turkish edition. published by: Ministry of Environment and Foresty, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 20 July 2017).


Partnership for Local Agenda 21 (1999). Local Agenda 21 - The South Australian Experience. (Guidelines and Ideas for Local Government to Develop a Local Agenda 21 Program). Department for Environment. Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs and the Local Government Association South Australia March 1999 Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 July 2017).


Perkins M, McDonagh J (2012). New Zealand Local Government Initiatives and Incentives for Sustainable Design in Commercial Buildings. European Real Estate Society (ERES) (No. eres2012_057), Retrieved from: 

View (accessed 30 July 2017).


Roberts D, Diederichs N (2002). Durban's Local Agenda 21 Programme: Tackling Sustainable Development In a Post-Apartheid City. Environ. Urban. 14(1):189-201.


Scipioni A, Mazzi A, Mason M, Manzardo A (2009). The Dashboard of Sustainability to Measure the Local Urban Sustainable Development: The Case Study of Padua Municipality. Ecol. Indic. 9:364-380.


Selman P (2009). Local Authorities Initiatives in Support of Agenda 21 – Europe, Area Studies - Europe (Regional Sustainable Development Review). (Eds. Mather, A. and Bryden,J.), Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) Oxford, United Kingdom. pp.136-159.


Strong M, Dowdeswell E (1996). The Local Agenda Planning Guide: An Introduction to Sustainable Development Planning. The International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Local Agenda 21, The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).


Sustainable Environment (2017). Local Agenda 21. Retrieved from 

View (accesed 15 Jul 2017).


Tanguay GA, Rajaonson J, Lefebvre JF, Lanoie P (2010). Measuring the Sustainability of Cities: An Analysis of the Use of Local Indicators. Ecol. Indic. 10:407-418.


The Environment of the Czech Republic (CENIA) (2008). The Local Agenda 21, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 July 2017).


The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) (1992). United Nations Conference on Environment & Development Rio de Janerio. Brazil. 3 to 14 June 1992 Agenda 21, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 July 2017).


UCLG-MEWA (United Cities and Local Governments Middle East and West Asia Section) (2016). Habitat III Conference 2016, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 30 July 2017).


Union of Municipalities of Turkey (TBB) (2012). KardeÅŸ Åžehirler: Uluslararası Belediye Ä°ÅŸbirlikleri ve BirliÄŸimizin Rolü. Ä°ller ve


United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) (2015). Sustainable Development Goals: What Local Governments Need to Know, Retrieved from 

View (accessed 15 June 2017).


United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1972). Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. Stockholm 5-16 June 1972. Unıted Nations, Retrieved from 

View (in Accessed 15 June 2017). 

Upadhyay N, Brinkmann R (2010) (Spring). Green Local Governments in Florida: Assessment of sustainability


Varol C, Ercoskun OY, Gurer N (2011). Local Participatory Mechanisms and Collective Actions for Sustainable Urban Development in Turkey. Habitat. Int. 35(1):9-16.


Yıldırım S, Yıldırım DÇ, Gedikli A (2016). Sustainable Consumption Trends in the World in the Context of Green Economy and Sustainability. (Eds. ErdoÄŸdu. MM. Arun T, Ahmad IH). Handbook of Research on Green Economic Development Initiatives and Strategies IGI Global. 4:66-84.


Zan ZM, Ngah K (2012). Local Agenda 21 Program Effectiveness in Seberang Perai Municipal Council, Penang, Malaysia. OIDA Int. J. Sustain. Dev. 4(6):25-30.