Journal of
Physical Education and Sport Management

  • Abbreviation: J. Phys. Educ. Sport Manag.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6486
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPESM
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 83

Full Length Research Paper

Early warning, conflict, and conflict resolution in the sports enterprises

Franz U. Atare
  • Franz U. Atare
  • Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 24 June 2022
  •  Accepted: 18 December 2023
  •  Published: 31 January 2024


The study investigated the awareness of early warning, conflict management strategies, and their application in resolving conflicts within the sports industry in Nigeria, addressing three research questions and a hypothesis. The research employed a correlational design method, utilizing a logically validated 20-item self-structured questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. Data were collected from Presidents, Secretaries, Technical Directors, and Board Members of Sports Federations (n=82). The findings revealed that a majority of sports managers and administrators lack awareness of conflict early warning (60%) and possess insufficient knowledge of conflict management strategies (89%), although they actively apply conflict resolution methods (90%). Furthermore, the study indicated a positive correlation between early warning (r = 0.060) and conflict management strategies (r = 0.026) with the application of conflict resolution methods. However, additional tests demonstrated that awareness of early warning and conflict management strategies do not significantly predict (F=2.725) the application of conflict resolution in real situations. As a recommendation, the study suggests that sports managers and administrators should enhance their understanding of early warning and conflict management, applying them proactively to resolve conflicts and mitigate their impact.


Key words: Conflicts, early warning, sports, enterprises, conflict resolution.