Journal of
Parasitology and Vector Biology

  • Abbreviation: J. Parasitol. Vector Biol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2510
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPVB
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 193

Review

Historic and current trends of human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan

Yatta S. Lukou
  • Yatta S. Lukou
  • School of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Juba, P. O. Box 82, Juba, South Sudan.
  • Google Scholar
Erneo B. Ochi
  • Erneo B. Ochi
  • Saint Mary’s College of Rehabilitation, Juba, South Sudan.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 27 April 2020
  •  Accepted: 07 July 2020
  •  Published: 31 August 2020

References

Alibu VP, Enyaru JCK, Matovu E, Malele II, Chisi JE, Mbongo N, Mansinsa P, El-Rayah I, Yassir M, Abdelrahman M, Ochi EB, Lukaw YS(2015). Molecular xeno monitoring of trypanosomes in tsetse flies. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 7(6):80-88.
Crossref

 

Bailey NM, Cunningham MP, Kimber CD (1967). The indirect fluorescent antibody technique applied to dried blood, for use as a screening test in the diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis in Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61:696-700.
Crossref

 

Diallo T, Singla LD, Sumbria D, Kaur P, Bal MS (2018). Conventional and molecular diagnosis of haemo-protozoan infections in Cattle and equids from Republic of Guinea and India. Indian Journal of Animal Research 52(8):1206-1211.
Crossref

 

Duku MO (1979). Human trypanosomiasis in the Southern Sudan: Present situation and control measures in: International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis Research and Control 16th Meeting, Yaoundé Cameroon, pp. 139-145.

 

Duvallet G, de La Rocque S, Reifenberg JM, Solano P, Lefrançois T, Michel JF, Bengaly Z, Sidibe I, Cuisance D,Cuny G (1999). Review on the molecular tools for the understanding of the epidemiology of animal trypanosomosis in West Africa. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 94(2):245-248.
Crossref

 

Enyaru CKJ, James N, Pius AV, Enock M, Malele II, John CE, Nicolas M, Philemon M, El-Rayah I, Yassir M, Mubarak M, Ochi E, Vinand N (2014). Development and evaluation of lateral flow test for the detection of trypanosomes in tsetse flies. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 6(12):181-188.
Crossref

 

Ford LB (2007). Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular. Conflict and Health 1:6e.
Crossref

 

Ford LB, Odiit M, Maiso F, Waltner-Toews D, McDermott J(2006). Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions. African Health Sciences 6(4):223-231.

 

Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, Paone M, Diarra A, Grout L, Simarro PP, Zhao W, Argaw D (2020). Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis at continental and country level: Update to 2018. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 14(5):e0008261
Crossref

 

Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, Paone M, Diarra A, Grout L, Mattioli RC, Argaw D (2017). Monitoring the elimination of human African trypanosomiasis: Update to 2014. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11(5):e0005585.
Crossref

 

Hide G (1999). History of Sleeping Sickness in East Africa. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12(1):112-125.
Crossref

 

Lukaw YS, Abdelrahman MM, Mohammed YO, Ochi EB, Suliman YR, El-Rayah IE (2015).Performance assessment of molecular and microscopy tests for detection of Trypanosoma species in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) midguts in Kajo-keji County, South Sudan. International Journal of Bioassays 4(5):3910-3914.

 

Malele I, Ouma J, Enyarau JCK, MatovuE, AlibuV, Auma JE, Onyoyo SG, Mukiria PW, Ndungu K, Kitonga PK, Mwaniki LM, Nyingili HS, Lyarau EA, Kapange LA, Kamau PK, Masiga DK(2013). Comparative diagnostic and analytical performance of PCR and LAMP-based trypanosome detection methods estimated using pooled whole tsetse flies midguts. Veterinary Parasitology 197:549-556.
Crossref

 

Mohammed YO, Mohammed- Ahmed MM, Malik KH, Rayah IE (2008). Distribution pattern of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in Bahr el Jebel State, southern Sudan. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 27:210-215.
Crossref

 

Moore A, Richer M (2001). Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 6(5): 342-347.
Crossref

 

Moore A, Richer M, Enrile M, Losio E, Roberts J (1999). Resurgence of sleeping sickness in Tambura County, Sudan. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61:315-318.
Crossref

 

Morlais I, Grebaut P, Bodo JM, Djoha S, Cuny G, Herder S (1998). Detection and identification of trypanosomes by polymerase chain reaction in wild tsetse flies in Cameroon. Acta Tropica 70:109-117.
Crossref

 

Palmer JJ, Kelly AH, Surur EI, Checchi F, Jones C (2014). Changing landscapes, changing practice: Negotiating access to sleeping sickness services in a post-conflict society. Social Science and Medicine 120:396-404.
Crossref

 

Parashar R, Singla LD, Batra K, Kumar R, Kashyap N, Kaur P and Bal MS (2018). Unraveling cryptic epizootiology of equid trypanosomosis in Punjab State of India by parasitological and sero-molecular techniques. Acta Tropica 185:18-26.
Crossref

 

Ruiz-Postigo JA, Franco JR, Lado M, Simarro PP (2012). Human african trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: How can we prevent a new epidemic? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(5):e1541.
Crossref

 

Simarro PP, Cecci G, Poane M, Franco JR, Diarra A, Ruiz JA, Fèvre EM, Courtin F, Mattioli RC, Jannin JG (2010). The Atlas of human African trypanosomiasis: A contribution to global mapping of neglected tropical diseases. International Journal of Health Geographics 9:57.
Crossref

 

Simo G, Mansinsa PD, KandeV, Mesu BK, Manzambi EZ, Ollivier G, Asonganyi T, Cuny G, Grébaut P (2006). Trypanosomiasis transmission, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Emerging Infectious Diseases.
Crossref

 

Sumbria D, Singla LD, Kumar R, Bal MS, Kaur P (2017). Comparative sero-prevalence and risk factor analysis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in equines from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab (India) by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and card agglutination test/T. evansi. Review of Scientific and Technical OIE 36(3):971-979.
Crossref

 

Welburn SC, Maudlin I (1999). Tsetse-trypanosome interactions: rites of passage. Parasitology Today 15:399-403.
Crossref

 

WHO (2012). World Health Organization (WHO) Fact Sheet No.259. Tryapanosomiasis, Human African (Sleeping Sickness).