Journal of
Soil Science and Environmental Management

  • Abbreviation: J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2391
  • DOI: 10.5897/JSSEM
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 311

Full Length Research Paper

Reducing compaction effort and incorporating air permeability in Proctor testing for design of urban green spaces on cohesive soils

A. M. Ibrahim1, N. Persaud2*, R. W. Zobel3 and A. Hass4
1Soils and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, El-Fayoum University, Fayoum, Postal Code 63514, Egypt. 2Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0404, USA. 3USDA/ARS Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, 1224 Airport Road, Beaver, West Virginia, USA. 4West Virginia State University, Gus R. Douglass Institute, P. O. Box 1000, Institute, WV 25112-1000, USA.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 16 December 2009
  •  Published: 28 February 2010


It is well established that compaction negatively affects agronomic productivity, that air permeability is a sensitive measure of the degree of soil compaction and therefore a good indicator of soil productivity impairment from compaction. Cohesive soils in urban settings are often heavily compacted by the common engineering practice to compact sub-grades of urban construction sites to 95% or more of the optimum density obtained in standardized Proctor tests. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent reducing compaction effort would increase the air permeability of Proctor test specimens.  Quantifying this relationship would permit more appropriate Proctor test specifications for the design of urban green spaces on cohesive soils.  We designed a portable transient flow apparatus for rapidly measuring air permeability and used it to measure air permeability on Proctor test specimens of three cohesive sub-grade soil materials covering a range of USDA textures (loam, silt loam and silty clay) and Proctor compaction characteristics.  We compacted test specimens at their Proctor optimum water content using efforts ranging from 100 to 25% (the lowest practicable value) of that used in the standardized Proctor test.  Results confirmed that compaction severely reduces air permeability of the test specimens and indicated that the common practice of compaction to 95% or more of the optimum Proctor density is probably not appropriate for construction of urban green spaces. Reducing compaction effort from 100 to 25% of the standardized Proctor test value increased air permeability 30, 89 and 42 times respectively for the loam, silt loam and silty clay test specimens.  More extensive studies are needed to correlate measured air permeability of Proctor test specimens to agronomic productivity of urban green spaces.


Key words: Urban soils, air permeameter, modified Proctor test.