The objective of the current study was to assess the major reproductive health problems and associated risk factors of dairy cattle in and around Jimma town, Southâ€“Western Ethiopia in the current study, out of 343 cows investigated (28%) were found to be positive for at least one reproductive health problems. The major reproductive health problems identified in the current study were retained fetal membrane (8.75%), abortion (7%), dystocia (6.4%), vaginal prolapsed (2.2%), still birth (2.0%), anestrous (0.6%), prolonged calving (0.6%) and repeat breeding (0.6%). The association was statistically significant (p<0.05). The prevalence of major reproductive health problems were found to be 3.72 times higher in Kersa and 1.43 times higher in Dedo district than Jimma town, while in Agaro and Saka were 0.5 and 0.95 times lower than Jimma town and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.029). Furthermore, cross breed cows were 0.55 times less likely prone to reproductive health problems than local breeds and the difference statistically significant (P = 0.01). The multi-parous cows were 1.4 times more vulnerable to reproductive health problems than primiparous (P = 0.007). Body condition score was also significantly contributing to the presence of reproductive health problems (P=.011). Current study revealed that major reproductive health problems are responsible for the low reproductive performance of dairy cows in the study area. Therefore, creating awareness among farm owners and animal attendants concerning reproductive health problems and their prevention mechanisms, as well as further study on identifying the specific causative agents were recommended of reproductive health problems should be conducted.
Keywords: Cross breeds, dairy cow, Ethiopia, Indigenous, Jimma zone, reproductive health problem