Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2768

Full Length Research Paper

Effects of biochar and manure on soil properties and growth of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings at the coastal region of Kenya

Riziki Umazi Mwadalu
  • Riziki Umazi Mwadalu
  • Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Benson Mochoge
  • Benson Mochoge
  • Department of Agriculture, Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Benjamin Danga
  • Benjamin Danga
  • Department of Agriculture, Science and Technology, School of Agriculture and Enterprise Development, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 16 June 2020
  •  Accepted: 15 July 2020
  •  Published: 31 August 2020


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Balozi B, Kiraithe C, Kimani GK (2013). The effects of Intra-specific competition on survival in a Casuarina equisetifolia spacing trial in Gede, Malindi, Kenya. E3 Journal of Environmental Research and Management 4(5):0267-0274.


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Bhattarai A, Bhattarai B, Pandey S (2015). Variation of soil microbial population in different soil horizons. Journal of Microbiology and Experimentation 2(2):75-78.


Biederman LA, Harpole WS (2013). Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: A meta-analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy 5:202-214.


Carter S, Shackley S, Sohi S, Suy TB, Haefele S (2013). The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactusa sativa) and Cabbage (Brassica chenensis). Agronomy 3:404-418.


Carvalho M TM, Madari BE, Bastiaans L, Oort PAJ, Heinemann AB, Meinke H (2013). Biochar improves fertility of clay soil in Brazilian Savannah: Short term effects and impacts on rice yield. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics 114(2):101-107.


Chintala R, Mollinedo J, Schumacher T E, Malo DD, Julson JL (2013). Effect of biochar on chemical properties of acidic soil. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 60(3):393-404.


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Daldoum DMA, Hammad GH (2015). Performance of Acacia Senegal wild seedlings growth under some manures and NPK in nursery site. Journal of Forest and Environment Science 31(1): 303-311.


Diagne N, Diouf D, Svistoonoff S, Kane A, Noba K, Franche C, Bogusz D, Duponnois R (2013). Casuarina in Africa: Distribution, role and importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal fungi and Frankia on plant development. Journal of Environmental Management 128C:204-209.


Drabkin D, Weinfuether K (2014). Effects of biochar substrates on tree growth and soil on wind throw areas and Christmas tree cultures. The earth living skin: Soil, life and climate change, ECTU-SSS Conference, Bari, Italy, 22-25 September 2014.


Ewulo BS, Ojeniyi SO, Akanni DA (2008). Effect of poultry manure on selected soil physical and chemical properties, growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato. Africa Journal of Agricultural Research 3(9):612-616.


Ezlu E, Sandhu S, Kumar S, Arriaga FJ (2019). Soil health indicators impacted by long-term cattle manure and inorganic fertilizer application in acorn-soybean rotation of South Darkota. Scientific Reports 9:11776.


Fayong L, Liang X, Niyungeko C, Sun T, Liu F, Arai Y (2019). Effects of biochar amendments on soil phosphorus transformations in agricultural soils. Advances in Agronomy 158:131-172.


Gao S, DeLuca TH, Cleveland (2019). Biochar additions alter P and N availability in agricultural ecosystem: A metadata analysis. Science the Total Environment 654:463-472.


Gathuru G (2011). The performance of selected tree species on the rehabilitation of limestone quarry of East African Portland Cement, Athi River, Kenya. PhD thesis, Kenyatta University.


Glaser B, Lehr V (2019). Biochar effects on phosphorus availability in agricultural soils: A meta-analysis. Scientific Reports 9:9338.


Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) (2020) Species profile: Casuarina equisetifolia. 


Hafeez Y, Iqbal S, Jabee K, Shahza S, Jahan S, Rasul F (2017). Effect of biochar application on seed germination and seedling growth of glycine max (L) MERR. Under drought stress. Pakistan Journal of Botany 49(51):7-13.


Han SH, An JY, Hwang J, Kim SB, Park BB (2016). The effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on the growth and nutrient concentrations of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera Lin.) in a nursery system. Forest Science and Technology 12(3):137-143.


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Kandioura N, Franche C, Bogusz D, Juponnois R (2013). Casuarina equisetifolia in Africa: Distribution, role, importance or arbuscular mycorrhiza, ectomy fungi and Frankia on plant development. Journal of Environmental Management 128c:204-209.


Kariithi T, Thagana W, Gweyi-Onyango PJ (2017). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on the soil chemical properties of the Rhizosphere in Kiambu, County, Kenya. Asian Journal of Agriculture 7(4):1-13.


Karuku GN (2018). Soil and water conservation measures and challenges in Kenya. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 12(6):116-145.


Kazmi SJH, Shaikh S, Zamir U, Zafar H, Rasool A, Tariq F, Afzal A, Arif T (2010). Ecological and socio-economic evaluation of use of Prosopis juliflora biochar production in Pakistan. University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.


Khaitov B, Yun HJ, Lee Y, Ruziev F, Le TH, Umurzokov M, Bo AB, Cho KM, Park KW (2019). Impact of organic manure on growth, nutrient content and yield of chilli pepper under various temperate environments. Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16:3031.


Krotz L, Ragaglia L, Giazzi G (2013). Quick, accurate nitrogen, total Carbon and total Organic carbon determination in soils by elemental analysis, Strada, Rivoltana, Italy.


Kung'u JB, Kihara J, Mugendi DN, Jaenicke H (2008). Effect of small-scale farmers' tree nursery growing medium on agroforestry tree seedlings' quality in Mt. Kenya Region. Scientific Research and Essay 3(8):359-364.


Leghari SJ, Wahocho NA, Laghari GM, Leghari AH, Bhabhan GM, Talpur KH, Bhutto TA, Wahocho BS, Lashari AA (2016). Role of nitrogen for plant growth and Development: A review. Advances in Environmental Biology 10(9):209-218.


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Mbuvi MTE, Wekesa C, Ndalilo L (2014). The untapped potential of Casuarina equisetifolia in the Kenyan Coast. 5th International Casuarina workshop. Mammallapuran, Chennai, India, 4th-7th February 2014.


Mohan D, Abhishek K, Sarswat A, Patel M, Singh P, Pittman CU (2018). Biochar production and application in soil fertility and carbon sequestration - A sustainable solution to crop residue burning in India. Royal Society of Chemistry 8:508-520.


Mwangi TJ, Moebe SN, Wanjekenche E, Onyango R, Ngeny J, Osore Z (2010). Improving and sustaining soil fertility by using farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer for economical maize production in West Pokot, Kenya. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 6(3):313-321.


Nyamai DO, Juma PO (1996). Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils with low Phosphorus. East African Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 62(1-2):253-259.


Ogunmwoyi IN, Igbinosa OE, Odjadjare EE (2008). Microbial analysis of different top soil samples of selected site in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essays 3(3):120-124.


Okalebo JR, Kenneth WG, Woomer PL (2002). Laboratory method of soil and plant analysis. Second edition, SACRED Office Nairobi, 128p.


Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S (2009). Agroforestry Database: A tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya.


Prakash P, Pant KS, Yewale A (2014). Effect of tree spacing and organic manures on various growth parameters of Calendula officinalis under Grewia optiva based agroforestry system. International Journal of Farm Sciences 4(2):130-138.


Pühringer H (2016). Effects of different biochar application rates on soil fertility and water retention in on-farm experiments on smallholder farms in Kenya. Master's thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.


Razaq M, Zhang P, Shen H-l, Salahuddin (2017). Influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth and root morphology of Acer mono. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0171321.


Shah T, Khan S, Shah Z (2017). Soil respiration, pH and EC as influenced by biochar. Soil and Environment 36(01):77-83.


Takoutsing B, Tchoundjeu Z, Degrande A, Asaah E, Gyau A, Nkeumoe F, Tsobeng A (2014). Assessing the Quality of Seedlings in Small-scale Nurseries in the Highlands of Cameroon: The Use of Growth Characteristics and Quality Thresholds as Indicators. Small-Scale Forestry Small-scale Forestry 13(1):65-77.


Truong THH, Marschner P (2018). Addition of residues with different C/N ratio in soil over time individually or as mixes- effect on nutrient availability and microbial biomass depends on amendment rate and frequency. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 18(4):1157-1172.


Trupiano D, Cocozza C, Baronti S, Amendola C, Vaccari FP, Lustrato G, Lonardo S, Fnatasma F, Tognetti R, Scippa GS (2017). The effects of biochar and its combination with compost on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth, soil properties and soil microbial activity and abundance. International Journal of Agronomy Volume 2017, Article ID 3158207, 12 pages. 


Uddin MB, Mukul SA, Hossain MK (2012). Effects of organic manure on seedling growth and nodulation capacities of five popular leguminous agroforestry tree components of Bangladesh. Journal of Forest Science 28(4): 212-219.


Wekesa L, Mwalewa S (2015). Cost benefit analysis of Casuarina growing in Kenya. Miti Mingi Bulletin, Oct-Dec


Yunilasari M, Sufardi, Zaitun (2020). Effects of biochar and cow manure on soil chemical properties and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) yields in entisol. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 425:012014.


Zhang Q-Z, Dijkstra FA, Liu X-R, Wang Y-D, Huang J (2014). Effects of Biochar on Soil Microbial Biomass after Four Years of Consecutive Application in the North China Plain. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102062.