A phenomenological model for photon mass generation in vacuo
A phenomenological model is presented here arguing that photon mass is an induced effect rendered in the form of vacuum potential arising from vacuum natural modes. An elementary vacuum potential is defined as a function of vacuum zero-point fields, which yields an expression for effective photon mass generation. A Lagrangian is constructed for this model which incorporates photons with effective mass in vacuo. It...
On the nature of electric charge
A few hundred years have passed since the discovery of electricity and electromagnetic fields, formulating them as Maxwell's equations, but the nature of an electric charge remains unknown. Why do particles with the same charge repel and opposing charges attract? Is the electric charge a primary intrinsic property of a particle? These questions cannot be answered until the nature of the electric charge is...
A model for removing sediments from open channels
The problems caused by suspended sediment overloading in open channels are of great importance to the hydraulic engineers. One of the important problems caused by the sediment overloading during flood seasons is the change in bed level and corresponding water level of rivers due to its deposition on the river bed. At the upstream reaches, the bed slope is high, velocity is high and hence the rivers carry large amount of...
Lehmann Type II weighted Weibull distribution
We upgrade on the method used on weighted Weibull model proposed by Azzalini (1985) using the logit of Beta function by Jones (2004) to have Lehmann Type II weighted Weibull model with a view to obtaining a distribution that is more better than both weighted Weibull and Weibull distribution in terms of estimate of their characteristics and their parameter. The weighted Weibull distribution is proposed by slightly...
Metamaterials in microwave applications: A selective survey
Recently, metamaterial has grabbed prime focus of research fraternity working in the field of antennas, microwave filters and components design. Many different structures of split ring resonators (SRR) for their respective applications have been reported till date. In all of these findings in some way or other, using metamaterial, drastic reduction in size of the component has been achieved. Thus, the metamaterial can...