International Journal of
Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-243X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJBC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 679

Article in Press

Study of breeding behavior, nest and egg parameters, and predation risk in the ground nesting bird, red-wattled lapwing from Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Fatime Laraib

  •  Received: 24 August 2023
  •  Accepted: 28 November 2023
This research examines the breeding habits of red-wattled lapwings (Vanellus indicus) at Zainab Hall, Bahauddin Zakariya University in Multan, Pakistan. Topics include the breeding season, nest construction, clutch size, incubation period, hatching, and fledgling success. During the breeding season, male lapwings establish territories in April through June. Both male and female lapwings build nests and care for their young with exceptional parental care, protecting their eggs and chicks from danger day and night. The nest is a circular pit lined with stones or clay chunks, measuring 4.1 cm in length, 3.017 cm in breadth, and weighing 22.27 g, with a volume of 16.63 ml. The egg shape index is 76.42, and the specific gravity is 1.21 g/cm3. Both parents incubate the eggs for approximately 25-28 days, with an observed hatching success rate of 50%. The clutch size ranged from 0 to 4, with 4 being the typical number. Hatchlings are ready to fly in 21-27 days, and breeding-related tasks end within 64-77 days. The study highlights the importance of preserving the red-wattled lapwing's biodiversity for ecological balance and promoting bird ecotourism in Multan while studying its characteristics. The research also notes a high predation rate due to human activity, despite all fledglings being successful.

Keywords: Animal behavior, breeding preferences, food sources, hatching success