International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 222

Full Length Research Paper

The metaphysical views on causation among Batswana: implications for case conceptualization, diagnoses, and treatment in counseling

Bhusumane Dan-Bush
  • Bhusumane Dan-Bush
  • Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 12 July 2022
  •  Accepted: 01 November 2022
  •  Published: 30 November 2022


This study focused on how counsellors in Botswana handle belief systems, spiritual, and religious orientations of clients. It explored common beliefs clients up-held about what causes distress. It explored ways in which counsellors addressed clients’ indigenous cultural beliefs and perceptions about the origins of illness, misfortune, and other forms of distress. In-depth interviews were the main data collection tool while content analysis was used in data analysis. Thirty counsellors from different parts of Botswana participated in the study. The study revealed that clients uphold metaphysical views on causation namely, transcendental forces, malevolent forces, witchcraft and sorcery, and disconnection from one’s social and spiritual environment are causes of their misfortune and distress. It showed that most counsellors had limited knowledge and skills on how to handle indigenous cultural beliefs of clients. It highlighted deficiencies in counsellor training to prepare counsellors on how to respond to culturally-grounded behaviours and manifestations.


Key words: Metaphysical views, counsellors, Botswana, cultural beliefs, causation.