International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2568

Full Length Research Paper

Flat gravity based on Hubble’s law which expanded Newtonian gravity

Shinsuke Hamaji
  • Shinsuke Hamaji
  • Hyama Natural Science Research Institute, 403 Daiichi-Kiriya, building 5-2, Chuo 2-chome, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-0011, Japan.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 16 July 2014
  •  Accepted: 13 November 2014
  •  Published: 28 November 2014

References

Ade PAR, Aghanim N, Alves MIR, Armitage-Caplan C, Arnaud M, Ashdown M, Atrio-Barandela F, Aumont J, Aussel H, Baccigalupi C, Banday AJ, Barreiro RB, Barrena R, Bartelmann M, Bartlett JG, Bartolo N, Basak S, Battaner E, Battye R, Benabed K, Benoît A, Benoit-Lévy A, Bernard JP, Bersanelli M, Bertincourt B, Bethermin M, Bielewicz P, Bikmaev I, Blanchard A, Bobin J, Bock JJ, Böhringer H, Bonaldi A, Bonavera L, Bond JR, Borrill J, Bouchet FR, Boulanger F, Bourdin H, Bowyer JW, Bridges M, Brown ML, Bucher M, Burenin R, Burigana C, Butler RC, Calabrese E, Cappellini B, Cardoso JF, Carr R, Carvalho P, Casale M, Castex G, Catalano A, Challinor A, Chamballu A, Chary RR, Chen X, Chiang HC, Chiang LY; Chon G, Christensen PR, Churazov E, Church S, Clemens M, Clements DL, Colombi S, Colombo LPL, Combet C, Comis B, Couchot F, Coulais A, Crill BP, Cruz M, Curto A, Cuttaia F, Da Silva A, Dahle H, Danese L, Davies RD, Davis RJ, Bernardis PD, Rosa AD, Zotti GD, Déchelette T, Delabrouille J, Delouis JM, Démoclès J, Désert FX, Dick J, Dickinson C, Diego JM, Dolag K, Dole H, Donzelli S, Doré O, Douspis M, Ducout A, Dunkley J, Dupac X, Efstathiou G, Elsner F, Enßlin TA, Eriksen HK, Fabre O, Falgarone E, Falvella MC, Fantaye Y, Fergusson J, Filliard C, Finelli F, Flores-Cacho I, Foley S, Forni O, Fosalba P, Frailis M, Fraisse AA, Franceschi E, Freschi M, Fromenteau S Frommert M, Gaier TC, Galeotta S, Gallegos J, Galli S, Gandolfo B, Ganga K, Gauthier C, Génova-Santos RT, Ghosh T, Giard M, Giardino G, Gilfanov M, Girard D, Giraud-Héraud Y, Gjerløw E, González-Nuevo J, Górski KM, Gratton S, Gregorio A, Gruppuso A, Gudmundsson JE, Haissinski J, Hamann J, Hansen FK, Hansen M, Hanson D, Harrison DL, Heavens A, Helou G, Hempel A, Henrot-Versillé S, Hernández-Monteagudo C, Herranz D, Hildebrandt SR, Hivon E, Ho S, Hobson M, Holmes WA, Hornstrup A, Hou Z, Hovest W, Huey G, Huffenberger KM, Hurier G, Ilić S, Jaffe AH, Jaffe TR, Jasche J, Jewell J, Jones WC, Juvela M, Kalberla P, Kangaslahti P, Keihänen E, Kerp J, Keskitalo R, Khamitov I, Kiiveri K, Kim J, Kisner TS, Kneissl R, Knoche J, Knox L, Kunz M, Kurki-Suonio H, Lacasa F, Lagache G, Lähteenmäki A, Lamarre JM, Langer M, Lasenby A, Lattanzi M, Laureijs RJ, Lavabre A, Lawrence CR, Le Jeune M, Leach S, Leahy JP, Leonardi R, León-Tavares J, Leroy C, Lesgourgues J, Lewis A, Li C, Liddle A, Liguori M, Lilje PB, Linden-Vørnle M, Lindholm V, López-Caniego M, Lowe S, Lubin PM, Macías-Pérez JF, MacTavish CJ, Maffei B, Maggio G, Maino D, Mandolesi N, Mangilli A, Marcos-Caballero A, Marinucci D, Maris M, Marleau F, Marshall DJ, Martin PG, Martínez-González E, Masi S, Massardi M, Matarrese S, Matsumura T, Matthai F, Maurin L, Mazzotta P, McDonald A, McEwen JD, McGehee P, Mei S, Meinhold PR, Melchiorri A, Melin JB, Mendes L, Menegoni E, Mennella A, Migliaccio M, Mikkelsen K, Millea M, Miniscalco R, Mitra S, Miville-Deschênes MA, Molinari D, Moneti A, Montier L, Morgante G, Morisset N, Mortlock D, Moss A, Munshi D, Murphy JA, Naselsky P, Nati F, Natoli P, Negrello M, Nesvadba NPH, Netterfield CB, Nørgaard-Nielsen HU, North C, Noviello F, Novikov D, Novikov I, O'Dwyer IJ, Orieux F, Osborne S, O'Sullivan C, Oxborrow CA, Paci F, Pagano L, Pajot F, Paladini R, Pandolfi S, Paoletti D, Partridge B, Pasian F, Patanchon G, Paykari P, Pearson D, Pearson TJ, Peel M, Peiris HV, Perdereau O, Perotto L, Perrotta F, Pettorino V, Piacentini F, Piat M, Pierpaoli E, Pietrobon D, Plaszczynski S, Platania P, Pogosyan D, Pointecouteau E, Polenta G, Ponthieu N, Popa L, Poutanen T, Pratt GW, Prézeau G, Prunet S, Puget JL, Pullen AR, Rachen JP, Racine B, Rahlin A, Räth C, Reach WT, Rebolo R, Reinecke M, Remazeilles M, Renault C, Renzi A, Riazuelo A, Ricciardi S, Riller T, Ringeval C, Ristorcelli I, Robbers G, Rocha G, Roman M, Rosset C, Rossetti M, Roudier G, Rowan-Robinson M, Rubi-o-Martín JA, Ruiz-Granados B, Rusholme B, Salerno E, Sandri M, Sanselme L, Santos D, Savelainen M, Savini G, Schaefer BM, Schiavon F, Scott D, Seiffert MD, Serra P, Shellard EPS, Smith K, Smoot GF, Souradeep T, Spencer LD, Starck JL, Stolyarov V, Stompor R, Sudiwala R, Sunyaev R, Sureau F, Sutter P, Sutton D, Suur-Uski AS, Sygnet JF, Tauber JA, Tavagnacco D, Taylor D, Terenzi L, Texier D, Toffolatti L, Tomasi M, Torre JP, Tristram M, Tucci M, Tuovinen J, Türler M, Tuttlebee M, Umana G, Valenziano L, Valiviita J, Van Tent B, Varis J, Vibert L, Viel M, Vielva P, Villa F, Vittorio N, Wade LA, Wandelt BD, Watson C, Watson R, Wehus IK, Welikala N, Weller J, White M, White SDM, Wilkinson A, Winkel B, Xia JQ, Yvon D, Zacchei A, Zibin JP, Zonca A (2013). Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results. preprint arXiv: 1303.5062.
 
Anderson JD, Laing PA, Lau EL, Liu AS, Nieto MM, Turyshev, SG (1998). Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses data, of an apparent anomalous, weak, long-range acceleration. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(14):2858.
Crossref
 
 
Astrodynamic Constants, http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/?constants, Accessed 7 July 2014.
 
 
Bidin CM, Carraro G, Méndez RA, Smith R (2012). Kinematical and chemical vertical structure of the galactic thick disk. II. A lack of dark matter in the solar neighborhood. Astrophys. J. 751(1):30.
Crossref
 
 
Blok WJGD (2009). The core-cusp problem. Advances in Astronomy. 2010.
 
 
Boom PGT (2013). The Pioneer Anomaly: An inconvenient reality or NASA's 12 year misconception?. preprint arXiv: 1307.0537.
 
 
Brownstein JR, Moffat JW (2006). Galaxy rotation curves without nonbaryonic dark matter. Astrophys. J. 636(2): 721.
Crossref
 
 
Corbelli E, Lorenzoni S, Walterbos R, Braun R, Thilker D (2010). A wide-field HI mosaic of Messier 31: II. The disk warp, rotation, and the dark matter halo. Astron Astrophys. 511.
 
 
D'Onghia E, Lake G (2004). Cold dark matter's small-scale crisis grows up. Astrophys. J. 612(2):628.
Crossref
 
 
Hodge JC (2013). Comments on The Pioneer Anomaly: an inconvenient reality or NASA's 12 year misconception. L4C 3N0 Canada E-mail Web Site Series. 1.
 
 
Horvath I, Hakkila J, Bagoly Z (2013). The largest structure of the Universe, defined by Gamma-Ray Bursts. arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.1104.
 
 
Hubble E (1929). A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 15(3):168-173.
Crossref
 
 
Kafle PR, Sharma S, Lewis GF, Bland-Hawthorn J (2012). Kinematics of the Stellar Halo and the Mass Distribution of the Milky Way Using Blue Horizontal Branch Stars. Astrophys. J. 761(2):98.
Crossref
 
 
Klypin A, Kravtsov AV, Valenzuela O, Prada F (1999). Where are the missing galactic satellites?. Astrophys. J. 522(1): 82.
Crossref
 
 
Kopeikin SM (2012). Celestial ephemerides in an expanding universe. Phys. Rev. D. 86(6):064004.
Crossref
 
 
Kragh H (1999). Cosmology and controversy: The historical development of two theories of the universe. Princeton University Press: 212.
 
 
Lachieze-Rey M (2007). Cosmology in the solar system: The Pioneer effect is not cosmological. Class. Quantum Grav. 24(10):2735.
Crossref
 
 
Lachieze-Rey M (2014). In search of relativistic time. Stud. Hist. Philos. M. P. 46: 38-47.
Crossref
 
 
Mahdavi A, Hoekstra H, Babul A, Balam DD, Capak PL (2007). A dark core in Abell 520. Astrophys. J. 668(2):806.
Crossref
 
 
Milgrom M (1983). A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis. Astrophys. J. 270: 365-370.
Crossref
 
 
Mizony M, Lachieze-Rey M (2005). Cosmological effects in the local static frame. A&A 434: 45-52.
 
 
Moore B, Ghigna S, Governato F, Lake G, Quinn T, Stadel J, Tozzi P (1999). Dark matter substructure within galactic halos. Astrophys. J. Lett. 524(1): L19.
Crossref
 
 
Rubin VC, Ford Jr WK, Thonnard N (1980). Rotational properties of 21 SC galaxies with a large range of luminosities and radii, from NGC 4605/R= 4kpc/to UGC 2885/R= 122 kpc. Astrophys. J. 238: 471-487.
Crossref
 
 
Tangen K (2007). Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?. Phys. Rev. D. 76(4): 042005.
Crossref
 
 
Turyshev SG, Toth VT (2010). The pioneer anomaly. Living Rev. Relat. 13(4):9-175.
 
 
Turyshev SG, Toth VT, Kinsella G, Lee SC, Lok SM, Ellis J (2012). Support for the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24):241101.
Crossref
 
 
Yadav JK, Bagla JS, Khandai N (2010). Fractal dimension as a measure of the scale of homogeneity. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405(3):2009-2015.
 
 
Zwicky F (1933). Die rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen nebeln. Helv. Phys. Acta. 6:110-127.
 
 
Zwicky F (1937). On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae. Astrophys. J. 86: 217.
Crossref