ISABB Journal of
Health and Environmental Sciences

  • Abbreviation: ISABB J. Health Environ. sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1937-3236
  • DOI: 10.5897/ISABB-JHE
  • Start Year: 2011
  • Published Articles: 16

Full Length Research Paper

An analysis of wastewater irrigation practices and its impacts on the livelihood generation and food chain contamination in Faisalabad District, Pakistan

Saira Akhtar
  • Saira Akhtar
  • Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
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Shabbir Ahmad
  • Shabbir Ahmad
  • College of Humanities and Development Studies, China Agricultural University, China.
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Wu Huifang
  • Wu Huifang
  • College of Humanities and Development Studies, China Agricultural University, China.
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Aroosa Shahbaz
  • Aroosa Shahbaz
  • Punjab Medical College, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Abdul Ghafoor
  • Abdul Ghafoor
  • Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
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Shakeel Imran
  • Shakeel Imran
  • Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Sub Campus Burewala, Punjab, Pakistan.
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Asma Zafar
  • Asma Zafar
  • PMAS, Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
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  •  Received: 06 June 2018
  •  Accepted: 04 October 2018
  •  Published: 31 October 2018


Ahmad HR (2007). Metal ion pollution potential of raw waste effluent of the Faisalabad city: Impact assessment on soils, plants and shallow ground water (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis).


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Drechsel P, Graefe S, Sonou M, Cofie OO (2006). Informal irrigation in urban West Africa: an overview. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute. 34p. (IWMI Research Report 102) .


Drechsel P, Keraita B, Amoah P, Abaidoo RC, Raschid-Sally L, Bahri A (2008). Reducing health risks from wastewater use in urban and peri-urban sub-Saharan Africa: applying the 2006 WHO guidelines. Water Science and Technology 57(9):1461-1466.


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Ibrahim M, Salmon S (1992). Chemical composition of Faisalabad-city [Pakistan] sewage effluent: II. Irrigation quality. India. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, India. Journal of Agricultural Research 68 p.


Odige JO (2014). Harmful effects of wastewater disposal into water bodies: a case review of the Ikpoba river, Benin city, Nigeria. Tropical Freshwater Biology. 


Kahlown MA, Ashraf M, Hussain M, Salam HA, Bhatti AZ (2006). Impact assessment of sewerage and industrial effluents on water resources, soil, crops and human health in Faisalabad. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources Khyaban-e-Johar, H-8/1, Isamabad.


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Murtaza G, Zia MH (2012). Wastewater production, treatment and use in Pakistan. In Second Regional Workshop of the Project 'Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture. 


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Obuobie E, Keraita B, Danso G, Amoah P, Cofie OO, Raschid-Sally L, Drechsel P (2006). Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: characteristics, benefits and risks. IWMI-RUAF-IDRCCPWF, Accra, Ghana: IWMI, 150 p. A


Prince AA (2018). Health Risks From Wastewater and Food Contamination: What Can We Do? 


Qadir M, Wichelns D, Raschid-Sally L, McCornick PG, Drechsel P, Bahri A, Minhas PS (2010). The challenges of wastewater irrigation in developing countries. Agricultural Water Management 97(4):561-568.


Raschid-Sally L, Parkinson J (2004). Wastewater reuse for agriculture and aquaculture–current and future perspectives for low-income countries. Waterlines 23(1):2-4.


Sadiq BM, Sharif K, Ehsan BB, Aziz A (2005). Hazardous effects of sewage water on the environment: Focus on heavy metals and chemical composition of soil and vegetables. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 16(4):338-346.


Clemett A, Ensink J (2006). Farmer driven wastewater treatment: A case study from Faisalabad, Pakistan. 


Trang DT, Van Der Hoek W, Tuan ND, Cam PD, Viet VH, Luu DD, Dalsgaard A (2007). Skin disease among farmers using wastewater in rice cultivation in Nam Dinh, Vietnam. Tropical Medicine & International Health 12(s2), 51-58.


United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) (2015). UN Report Calls for Wastewater Focus in Post-2015 Agenda, as 80% of Worlds Wastewater Discharged Untreated. UNEP News Centre. 


Van der Hoek W, Ul Hassan M, Ensink JHJ, Feenstra S, Rashid-Sally L, Munir S, Aslam MR, Ali N, Hussain R., Matsuno Y (2002). Urban wastewater: a valuable resource for agriculture. In: Research Report 63, IWMI, Sri Lanka.


Weckenbrock P (2010). Making a virtue of necessity–wastewater irrigation in a periurban area near Faisalabad, Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Forest and Environmental Sciences, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg).


World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater – Policy and Regulatory Aspects, Vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva.


Zafar A, Akhtar S (2003). Farmers perception about social impact and constraints in wastewater irrigation. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 40:210-213.