Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 488

Full Length Research Paper

A proposal of rock dust and biological fixation of nitrogen based on cooperatives to reduce dependence on chemical fertilizers in Myanmar

De Angelis Cristiano
  • De Angelis Cristiano
  • Skema Business School, France.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 22 August 2023
  •  Accepted: 13 February 2024
  •  Published: 31 May 2024


The defense mechanism against the Coup in Myanmar and the war in Ukraine hampered the functioning of most private and public activities and the relationships between distance and price dispersion have increased. Through a study of the rice cultivation in Myanmar, the article suggests the creation of an institutional environment that supports voluntary forms of cooperatives, developing a culture of independence, self-help and self-governance, the characteristics of the bio-dynamic agriculture. As the main contribution, this article presents two models: The Culture-Knowledge-Intelligence (CKI model) and the biodynamic agriculture model based on cultural change, agricultural cooperatives and the remineralizer rock dust to cope with climate change and the various barriers caused by armed conflicts in Myanmar and Ukraine, strongly supported by China and Russia, respectively. This model is based on Knowledge Management (KM, knowledge creation) and Organizational Intelligence (OI, knowledge application), in particular communities of practice (KM practice) and expert analysis (OI practice). The main conclusion is that Myanmar should strengthen ties with Germany and Australia in the area of agriculture, including research about rock dust, since Germany has the largest bio-dynamic area (34% of the world total) followed by Australia (20%).

Key words: Biodynamic agriculture, cooperatives, fixation of nitrogen, knowledge management, Myanmar, organizational intelligence, rice, rock dust.