The review concentrated on current literature on medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria and typhoid related diseases, highlighting information about their ethnobotany. The entire plants reviewed showed strong activities, establishing their different traditional applications and capability to control or eliminate malaria and typhoid diseases. Malaria and typhoid diseases are the most problematic public health challenge in Nigeria. Records have showed that annually, about 50% of the population suffers from at least one episode of malaria and typhoid diseases. The expenditure for malaria treatment creates high economic burden to households and health care system. The present review confirms application of forty-two (42) medicinal plants for the treatment of Malaria and typhoid related diseases. The zone of inhibition of the plants extract ranges from 5.4 to 35.0 mm and Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) was found to have the highest zone of inhibition. Among the plant parts in use, leaves had the highest percentage of utilization, followed by Shoot, Rhizome, Bulb and Tuber. The rate of utilization of medicinal plants around the world for the treatment of malaria and typhoid diseases is growing daily. Therefore, the need for further scientific research to analyze and extract the bioactive compounds in these plants in order to develop effective, reliable and affordable drugs that will help in the treatment of malaria and typhoid related diseases are strongly recommended.
Key words: Ethnobotany, documentation, malaria, medicinal, plant treatment, typhoid.
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