Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) have emerged as major public health challenges facing tuberculosis control programme particularly in Asia and Africa. In Nigeria, the seroprevalence of HIV is 4.4%, the third highest infection burden in the world, with 21% of all tuberculosis patients dually infected with TB and HIV. The impact of MDR-TB is likely to increase if adequate measures are not taken. Despite the high prevalence of MDR-TB in Nigeria, not much effort has been made at tackling the problem. This paper reviews the burden of MDR-TB and the factors that are responsible for the problem particularly in Nigeria. Internet search of studies on MDR-TB was done and those relevant for this study were reviewed. The major risk factors of MDR-TB in Nigeria are previous TB treatment and HIV/AIDS coinfection. Efforts should be made towards proper diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and MDR-TB and adequate treatment given where causes are treatable. Patients should be adequately counseled and where facilities for diagnosis and treatment are inadequate, the government can provide and subsidize the cost. This review highlights, the burden of multi- drug resistant, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS co-infection and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Nigeria.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, multi-drug resistance Tuberculosis, TB/HIV confection, risk factors