African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6862

Full Length Research Paper

Mitotic response of Allium cepa L. to toxicity of pharmaceutical effluents

Emmanuel Obiora Udoh
  • Emmanuel Obiora Udoh
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Sheily Nneka Egonu
  • Sheily Nneka Egonu
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Nnaemeka Maduabuchi Eze
  • Nnaemeka Maduabuchi Eze
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Ngozi Eucharia Abu
  • Ngozi Eucharia Abu
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Godswill Chukwunonso Ajuziogu
  • Godswill Chukwunonso Ajuziogu
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Maryrose Chigozie Nwankwo
  • Maryrose Chigozie Nwankwo
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
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Nnamdi Ogwo
  • Nnamdi Ogwo
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
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Eugene Obashi Ojua
  • Eugene Obashi Ojua
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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Goodness Okeh
  • Goodness Okeh
  • Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
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  •  Received: 12 March 2021
  •  Accepted: 02 June 2021
  •  Published: 30 June 2023

Abstract

The need to determine the mutagenic ability of waste waters from pharmaceutical industry is on the rise. With the aid of macro and micro assay of the root tip, this study was carried out to assess the genotoxic effects of varied concentrations of three pharmaceutical effluents (Ciprofloxacin, Arthemetrin and Psuedophedrin) on Allium cepa root tip during mitosis. The chemical evaluation of the effluents confirmed the presence of a few heavy metals with mutagenic potentials (Ni, Zn, Pb and Cu). The experiment carried out in the research and teaching laboratory of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The results showed extensive reduction in the length and number of the roots that were grown on the effluents. Noticeable reductions in the reproduction process of the cells were observed in Ciprofloxacin and Psuedophedrin than Arthemetrin effluent. The mitotic index ranged from 18.92 to 22.55% with Ciprofloxacin recording significantly (P < 0.05) the highest index. Both effluent concentrations and the time of treatment significantly affected the mitotic index. Conclusively, these untreated effluents are considered to be lethal following the aforementioned results and are environmentally risky. Therefore, a sound sewerage system in the pharmaceutical industry is therefore crucial.

Key words: Cell, mitosis, pharmaceutical effluents, environmental pollution, sewage.