The knowledge of ant diversity in an area can provide important information to set up management and conservation planning. This study aimed to identify the ants colonizing cultivated areas comparing their composition, abundance and diversity with the myrmecofauna from a non-managed area. The research was carried out at the Farm School at the Maranhão State University in São Luis, Northeastern Brazil from August, 2011 to July, 2012 in three environments (citrus orchard, agroforestry system and secondary forest), using pitfall traps. Ants were collected every two weeks, totaling 24 collections, from August, 2011 to July, 2012. We identified 21 species, with predominance of the sub family Myrmicinae, the genera Pheidole and the species Pheidole obscurithorax Naves, 1985. The study of ant abundance, composition, richness and similarity, showed higher diversity in the agroforestry system.
Key words: Formicidae, inventory, myrmecofauna, biodiversity.
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