The unknown potential of the mangaba Hancornia speciosa naturally occurring areas in the mid-north region of Brazil has raised the risk of its extinction and contributed to its underutilization. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation structure with naturally occurring mangaba in Recanto, Patizal and Recurso, villages in Morros municipality, State of Maranhão to provide the species proper utilization and conservation. The floristic composition was determined by the quadrants method. Two individuals were selected per quadrant, an adult and regenerating. The phytosociological parameters computed were Relative Density, Frequency and Dominance, Importance Value, Cover Value, the Shannon and Weaver Diversity Index and the Sorensen Similarity Index. The species H. speciosa reached relevant position in all computed parameters in the three sampled villages with importance values varying from 25.15 to 29.38% for the regenerating and from 29 to 56.64% for the adult strata, indicating the species relative ecological importance.
Key words: Diversity, Savannah-Restinga transition, phytosociology.
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