African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6693

Full Length Research Paper

Comparative productivity of nitrogen-use efficient and nitrogen-inefficient maize cultivars and traditional grain sorghum in the moist Savanna of West Africa

  S.O. Oikeh*, V.O. Chude1, G. J. Kling2 and W. J. Horst3
  1National Special Program on Food Security, Abuja, Nigeria. 2107 Crop Science Building, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR  97331-3002, U.S.A. 3Institut für Pflanzenernährung, Universität Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, D 30419 Hannover, Germany. *Africa Rice Center, (WARDA), 01 BP 2031, Cotonou, Benin Republic.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 28 February 2007
  •  Published: 31 March 2007

Abstract

 

Strategies to cope with low fertilizer use in West Africa include choice of crop (that is., sorghum vs. maize) and the development of nitrogen-use efficient maize (Zea mays L.) varieties. A two-year field study was undertaken to compare the N response of an N-use efficient maize (hybrid, cv. 8644-27) and a nitrogen-inefficient maize (cv. TZB-SR), and to compare the productivity of the two cultivars with a traditional grain-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) in the moist savanna agroecosystem in Zaria, Nigeria. The two maize cultivars were evaluated under three N levels (0, 60, and 120 kg ha-1). Sorghum (cv. ‘mori’) was evaluated under 0 and 120 kg N ha-1. Mean grain yield was 0.5 Mg ha-1 greater for N-use efficient than for N-inefficient maize, mostly because of its larger harvest indices for dry biomass and for N, and a greater N-utilization efficiency. In both years, with 120 kg N ha-1 applied, grain yield and grain-N were 54 to 275% higher in maize than in grain sorghum. Under nitrogen stress (zero-N), grain yield of the N-efficient maize was similar to that of grain sorghum. But sorghum had 2 to 3 times greater total aboveground dry-matter yield and 165 to 230% higher total N-uptake than the maize cultivars, suggesting that sorghum was exhausting the soil of a greater amount of mineral-N than maize. Results showed that even under limiting nitrogen supply, a maize-based system with N-efficient maize was potentially more ecologically sustainable than a sorghum-based system involving traditional grain sorghum.

 

Key words: Cereal-based systems, grain sorghum, moist savanna, N-efficient maize, N-inefficient maize, N-utilization efficiency, West Africa