Shoot and fruit borer (SFB), Earias spp. is the second major pest on okra after cotton jassid under Punjab conditions. High incidence of this pest has been reported mainly in the pre- and post- rainy seasons. The farmers are using indiscriminate sprays of insecticide on this crop. Since crop is harvested on every alternate day, thus, insecticide residues on this crop are of great concern. Therefore to develop more safe and eco-friendly management strategies involving the application of insecticides at right time to reduce the use of insecticides on okra for the quality vegetable production; the present studies on “Economic threshold level (ETL) of shoot and fruit borer, Earias spp. on okra” were carried during the year 2009. Cumulative percent fruit infestation on the basis of fruit numbers and weight was found to be significantly lower in the first three ETLs (12.89-14.15 and 14.73-16.81%, respectively) than other ETLs (16.67-22.08 and 19.09-23.41%, respectively) standard check (20.14 and 22.67%, respectively) and control (23.13 and 24.22%, respectively). Marketable yield were significantly higher (95.49-96.17 q/ha) in the former three ETLs, that is, 20% shoot infestation (6 sprays), 2% fruit infestation (5 sprays) and 4% fruit infestation (5 sprays) in comparison to other ETLs (65.64-85.25 q/ha), standard check (67.73 q/ha) and control (64.19 q/ha). Significantly higher economic returns (Rs. 23059 - Rs. 23378/-) were also achieved from first three ETLs. The lower number of sprays, higher marketable yield and economic returns were obtained in the two ETLs, that is, 2 and 4% fruit infestation level. Keeping in view the development of resistance to the insecticides, it is desirable to start the spray at 4% fruit infestation which will provide sufficient protection against pest.
Key words: Determination, economic threshold level (ETL), shoot and fruit borer, Earias spp., okra.
Copyright © 2023 Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0