The aim of this work is to identify the main sources of contamination of soils, their effects on organisms also presenting alternatives for remediation and decontamination of these contaminated environments. The soils have in their composition organisms that are naturally present, as well as the presence of contaminants in increasing proportion when compared to the world industrialization and modernization of agriculture; therefore, increase in evolution brings with it a bigger totality of compounds, resulting in worrying rates in the soils of Brazil, such as trace elements (Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Mercury, Copper) and compounds organic (pesticides) and inorganic (waste fossil fuels). In many instances, this contamination can decimate forms of life in the soil. With that, remediation and decontamination of these soils becomes a fundamental need for the current economic models, making bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques consist in a feasible alternative for remediation and decontamination of soil, presenting performances satisfactory in removal and stabilization of contaminants.
Key words: Soil contamination, trace elements, pesticides, removal, stabilization
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