A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the problems associated with artificial insemination effectiveness in dairy cattle in four selected villages of Toke Kutaye district. Semi- structured questionnaires were developed for a total of 217 dairy cattle owners. In addition, four artificial insemination technicians and nine experts were involved in the interview process. The study indicated that 129 (59.4 %) of the respondents accessed AI service regularly, while the remaining 40.6% of them had rare access to AI service. About, 46.6 % of the respondents reported that lack of AI services on weekend and holydays. Out of the interviewed dairy cattle owners, 40.5% of them responded that cows did not conceive due to lack of AI service in the area. 32% of the respondents also reported dystocia as another problem with their cows due to large size of a fetus. Nearly 73% of the respondents failed to service their cows when cows critical heat period. On the other hand, 27% of the participants use natural mating service to inseminate their cows. The current finding indicated AI service coverage and efficiency is low in the area, hence training on dairy cattle production for the community in the study area is crucial.
Keywords: Artificial insemination, AI efficiency, conception rate, dairy cattle