This paper has examined the constraints to agricultural production in Lebialem highlands, so as to propose ways of improving upon agricultural production in order to meet the food requirements of the rapidly increasing population. Data was obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The data was analyzed using descriptive and quantitative statistical analyses. The findings show that the government has been instrumental in ensuring increased agricultural productivity through the creation of state owned agricultural companies to educate the farmers, the provision of high quality seeds as well as the provision of extension services and subsidies to farmers. In spite of the fact that a lot of effort has been put in South West region, current trends show that agricultural productivity has been declining in many areas. A detailed examination of the constraints to agricultural production shows the problems confronting agriculture include the fact that there have been declining water resources as a result of competition for water demand for different users and uses and changing lifestyles, coupled with the limited sources of water supply for agriculture. Farmers do not have access and have not adopted improved farming techniques and often use rudimentary tools. There are difficulties in transporting the crops from the farms to the market since most of the farms to market roads are seasonal. It was also revealed that agricultural production varies with cropping season, that the farmersâ€™ preference influences the cultivation of some crop types and that the profits derived from the sale of agricultural products vary from crop to crop. The paper recommended that the major farm to market roads in the area be improve upon, agro-pastoral shows be organized by the respective regional and divisional delegations of agriculture, agricultural inputs should be subsidized and farmers trained on the use of these through Common Initiative Groups, Non-Governmental Organizations and cooperatives. It concluded that farmers need sensitization on agricultural innovation and change.
Keywords: Constraints, agricultural production, Lebialem highlands