African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 26 Apr 2012; 11(34)

April 2012

BioMatriX: Sequence analysis, structure visualization, phylogenetics and linkage analysis workbench

  The BioMatriX (Build Mine Xplore) is a bioinformatics work bench ( developed for biological science community to augment scientific research regarding genomics, proteomics, phylogenetics and linkage analysis in one platform. BioMatriX offers multi-functional services to perform specific tasks like DNA/RNA/Protein sequence analysis with graphical representations,...

Author(s):   Shagufta Kanwal, Usman Ali, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Zainab noor, Farhat-ul-ain Mirza  

April 2012

Identification of SNPs in chemerin gene and association with carcass and meat quality traits of Qinchuan Cattle

  Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism via its own receptor. In this study, two novel SNPs (868A>G in exon 2 and 2692C>T in exon 5) of chemerin gene were identified by PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technology. The allele frequencies of the novel SNPs were determined in the genetically diverse bovine breeds including six Chinese indigenous cattle breeds (Caoyuan...

Author(s):   Fubiao Song, Hongcheng Wang, Hong Wang,Hongbao Wang, Yaping Xin, and Linsen Zan,  

April 2012

The role of rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus in standing maize crop contamination in different ecological zones of Khyber Pakthunkhwa, Pakistan

  Soil and un-husked maize samples were collected from 29 different locations belonging to three distinct ecological zones (Swat, Hazara and Peshawar) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were evaluated for the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. The soil samples collected from Peshawar (100%) and Hazara (66%), and grain samples collected from Swat (64%) and Peshawar (55%)...

Author(s):   Saleem Ullah, Hamid Ullah Shah, Anwar Ali Shad and Sahib Alam  

April 2012

Genetic diversity of Stipa bungeana populations in the Loess Plateau of China using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

  Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to determine the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation for eight natural populations of Stipa bungeana in the Loess Plateau of China. 15 primers produced stable and reproducible amplification bands which were selected from the screened 96 primers. Among a total of 390 amplified bands, 335 (85.90%) were polymorphic loci. At species level,...

Author(s):   Yu Jing, Jing Zhao-Bin and Cheng Ji-Min, ,  

April 2012

Calcium enhances cadmium tolerance and decreases cadmium accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

  We aimed at characterizing mechanisms controlling cadmium accumulation in lettuce, which is a food crop showing one of the highest capacities to accumulate this toxic compound. In this study, plants from three lettuce varieties were grown for eight days on media supplemented or not with cadmium (15 µM CdCl2) and containing different concentrations of calcium (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mM Ca(NO3)2). Our...

Author(s):   Walid Zorrig, Zaigham Shahzad, Chedly Abdelly and Pierre Berthomieu  

April 2012

Physico-chemical properties of indigenous micro organism-composts and humic acid prepared from selected agro-industrial residues

  Paddy husk (PH) and corn stalks (CS) residues are managed through burning. Besides contributing to environmental pollution, burning causes loss of vegetation cover, erosion, run off and loss of organic matter. In order to minimize this problem, a study was conducted to manage PH and CS residues through composting and to determine the physical and chemical properties of different composts and humic acid...

Author(s):   A. Norida Hanim, A. M. Nik Muhamad, O. H. Ahmed, K. Susilawati and A. Khairulmazmi    

April 2012

Impact of different moisture regimes and nitrogen rates on yield and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays L.)

  Nitrogen and irrigation, both are essential to determine the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). A field study was accomplished to determine the upshots of different levels of irrigation and varying nitrogen rates on yield, yield contributing attributes and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of maize hybrid on sandy clay loam soil. Different nitrogen rates and moisture regime treatments comprised of...

Author(s):   Muhammad Maqsood, Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas and Salman Mushtaq  

April 2012

Biological control of Fusarium foot rot of wheat using fengycin-producing Bacillus subtilis isolated from salty soil

  Bacillus species are well known for their ability to control plant diseases through various mechanisms, including the production of secondary metabolites. Bacillus subtilis SR146 isolated from Tunisian salty soil showed in vitro activity against several species of Fusarium including Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium melonis, Fusarium...

Author(s):   REBIB Hanene, HEDI Abdeljabbar, ROUSSET Marc,  BOUDABOUS Abdellatif, LIMAM Ferid and SADFI-ZOUAOUI Najla  

April 2012

Degrading capability and activity of extracellular xylanase secreted by a composite microbial system XDC-2

  The natural lignocellulose degrading capabilities of extracellular enzyme secreted by a composite microbial system XDC-2 were studied. Peptone cellulose solution (PCS) medium was beneficial to the degradation of lignocellulosic materials and ATCC 1053 medium promoted enzyme production of XDC-2. The exocellular xylanase activities of the crude enzymes were stable below 40°C. The crude enzyme has an...

Author(s):   WANG Hui, GUO Peng, WANG Xiaofen, WANG Xiaojuan and CUI Zongjun  

April 2012

Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production span of rubber tree

  A spatial arrangement for planting rubber was proposed in order to facilitate intercropping during the whole production span of rubber tree. A field experiment was established in the Experiment Farm, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, Hainan, China, with two planting patterns of rubber clone Reyan 7-20-59: (1) single row avenue planting pattern (SR) by 3 m × 7 m, and (2) double...

Author(s):   Zeng Xianhai, Cai Mingdao and Lin Weifu  

April 2012

Biocontrol properties of indigenous Trichoderma isolates from North-east India against Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani

  Trichoderma is one of the best known and well described biocontrol fungi for its lytic activity and antagonistic properties against phytopathogens. In the present study, a total of 114 isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from the soil collected from diverse climatic conditions of Manipur on selective medium. Out of the total isolates, 80% shows high degree of antagonism against Fusarium...

Author(s):   Th. Kamala and S. Indira Devi  

April 2012

Enhanced accumulation of root hydrogen peroxide is associated with reduced antioxidant enzymes under isoosmotic NaCl and Na2SO4 salinities

  The inhibitory effect of salt stress on lettuce is one of the main reasons for thereduction of plant growth and crop productivity. In the present study, the response of two lettuce varieties Verte and Romaine to isoosmotic NaCl and Na2SO4 treatmentswere examined. Both varieties were grown in pots containing nutrient Hoagland solution with or without 100 mM NaCl or 77 mM Na2SO4. Relative growth...

Author(s):   Mahmoudi Hela$, Baatour Olfa$, Ben Salah Imen, Nasri Nawel, Wissal Abidi, Huang Jun, Zargouni Hanen, Hannoufa Abdelali, Lachaal Mokhtar and Ouerghi Zeineb  

April 2012

Crystal phases of calcium carbonate within otoliths of Cyprinus carpio. L. from Miyun Reservoir and Baiyangdian Lake, China

  Asteriscus (lagenar otolith) of Cyprinus Carpio. L. (Cyprinida, common carp) from the serious intermittent polluted Baiyangdian Lake and the little polluted Miyun Reservoir, all located in northern China, were chemically and mineralogically analyzed. All the analyzed fish showed that the composition of asterisci is dominated by calcium carbonate, with the minor elements As, Ba, Sr, and Zn; and the...

Author(s):   Liang-Feng Yang, Sheng-Rong Li, Guo-Wu Li and Jun-Yan Luo    

April 2012

Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their antibacterial effects

  The zinc oxide nanoparticles with the average particle size of about 30 nm were synthesized by the chemical technique and their properties were studied with the help of scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The aim of this study was to detect the antibacterial properties of 0.01, 0.5 and 1% nano-ZnO against Escherichia coli. E. coli was cultured in liquid and agar nutrient...

Author(s):   Mohammad Reza Arefi, Saeed Rezaei-Zarchi and Saber Imani  

April 2012

Characterization of polygalacturonases from fruit spoilage Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus tubingensis

  We reported the partial purification and characterization of polygalacturonases from fruit spoilage Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from banana and peach, respectively. By using diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sepharose column, one and two forms of polygalacturonases were separated from F. oxysporum (PGase) and A. tubingensis (PGaseI and PGaseII),...

Author(s):   Ahmed R. Al-Najada, Rashad R. Al-Hindi and Saleh A. Mohamed,  

April 2012

Changes in photosynthesis and activities of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism during exposure to low light in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings

  Two cucumber genotypes, S404 and S1 with low light-sensitivity and low light-tolerance, respectively were used to investigate the oxygen consumption rate of photosystem I, the oxygen evolution rate of photosystem II, cab transcript levels, and activities of enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. The results show that short term (24 h) / long term (five and 10 days) low light...

Author(s):   Guoquan Mi, Liying Liu, Zhenxian Zhang and Huazhong Ren  

April 2012

Optimization of lactic acid production with immobilized Rhizopus oryzae

  Lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 immobilized in polyurethane foam was investigated by using response surface methodology. A 23 full-factorial central composite design was chosen to explain three independent variables; glucose concentration, pH and agitation rate. The model F-value (17.01) shows that predicted model is suitable for good fitting. Linear and quadratic...

Author(s):   Muhammet Åžaban Tanyıldızı, Åžule Bulut, Veyis Selen and Dursun Özer    

April 2012

Biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli isolates from HIV and AIDS patients in the Limpopo Province

  In the present study, Escherichia coli strains were isolated from water, stool, sputum and urine samples from HIV and AIDS patients attending treatment centers in the Limpopo Province, using standard microbiological procedures and identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Biofilm assay was performed using the Congo red agar and the microtiter plate methods. Beta-lactamase production was tested...

Author(s):   Samie, A. and Nkgau, T. F.  

April 2012

Entomophaga maimaiga – New entomopathogenic fungus in the Republic of Serbia

  The higher mortality rate of the older gypsy moth larval instars was reported in the forest complexes of Belgrade and Valjevo region, in the culmination phase of the new outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia. By field and laboratory studies of the causes of their death, the presence of conidia and resting spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga was reported in the dead...

Author(s):   Mara Tabaković-Tošić⊃,Georgi Georgiev⊃, Plamen Mirchev⊃, Dragutin Tošić⊃ and Vesna Golubović-Ćurguz⊃  

April 2012

Toxicity bioassay and effects of sub-lethal exposure of malathion on biochemical composition and haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus

  Clarias gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of malathion to determine the 96 h LC50 value and its sub-lethal effects on haematological parameters and biochemical composition were also investigated. The 96 h LC50 value concluded was 8.22 mg/L. Specimens of C. gariepinus were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/L) of pesticide for 4 weeks,...

Author(s):   Zubair Ahmad  

April 2012

Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  Food quality and safety are major concern among consumers throughout the world in the context of globalization. Hence, the origin and the history of a food item are of prime interest when food quality is questioned. Precise determination of contamination source relies on the use of efficient and reliable methods. This study was carried out to assess the microbial ecology of fish upon technological treatments...


April 2012

Development of rapid PCR-RFLP technique for identification of sheep, cattle and goat’s species and fraud detection in Iranian commercial meat products

  Identification of animal species used in commercial meat products is important with respect to economic and sanitary issues. The aim of this research was to realize ruminant species in meat products using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The universal CB7u primers pair was used for amplifying ~195 bp fragment from a variable region...

Author(s):   Hamideh Amjadi, Mohammad Javad Varidi, Seyed Hassan Marashi, Ali Javadmanesh and Shahrokh Ghovvati  

April 2012

A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from filamentous fungi

  Rapid development of resistance among major bacterial pathogens renders antibiotics more and more ineffective and it is crucial to find novel antibiotics for controlling these pathogens. Since high-throughput screening (HTS) that selects antibacterial agents according to targets in vitro rather than whole-cell have not proven effective in the discovery of new antibiotics; new approaches for...

Author(s):   Guohua Chen, Yehui Tan, Kaizhi Li, Fangqing Chen, Ruiping Li, Chaoyin Yue and Wei Shao  

April 2012

Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood constituents and performance of broiler chickens

  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) and black pepper (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six dietary treatments. Each diet was randomly fed to four groups of 12...

Author(s):   Abdollah Akbarian, Abolghasem Golian, Hassan Kermanshahi, Ali Gilani and Sajad Moradi  

April 2012

Gastro-protective activity of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in male rats

  Gastro protective effects of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on ethanol induced gastric ulcer were investigated in male rats. Thirty two (32) male rats weighing between 180 and 250 g were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as the negative control (distilled water), groups 2 and 3 received 50mg/kg and 100mg/kgCarica papaya seed extract respectively, while group 4 received...

Author(s):   OKEWUMI Tolunigba Abisola and OYEYEMI Adekunle Wahab