African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12484

Table of Content: December 2005; 4(12)

December 2005

Genetic studies and a search for molecular markers that are linked to Striga asiatica resistance in sorghum

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is important both as a food and feed crop in Zimbabwe. Its yield losses of sorghum can be up to 100% when the crop is heavily infestated by witchweeds [Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze]. Witchweed resistant cultivars offer the most practical control option under smallholder (SH) farmer conditions and could become part of a sustainable integrated control strategy. Development of S....

Author(s): Mutengwa, C. S., Tongoona, P. B. and Sithole-Niang, I.

December 2005

Assessment of the genetic diversity in five generations of a commercial broodstock line of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp

Genetic variation among and within five generations of an inbred commercial captive line of Litopenaeus vannamei and genetic distance among them were evaluated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), using descriptive and genetic similarity analyses for dominant markers at single- and multi-populational level. One hundred individuals were analyzed and 56 polymorphic loci were identified with a set of six primers...

Author(s): Patrícia Domingues de Freitas and Pedro Manoel Galetti Jnr.

December 2005

Optimization of protocols for DNA extraction and RAPD analysis in West African fonio (Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua ) germplasm characterization

Fonio is an important indigenous grain crop of West Africa, but the extent of genetic diversity in fonio, its origin and phylogeny are not well understood. DNA markers allow precise characterization of plant germplasm accessions, but there is no literature report of their use in fonio. This paper reports the result of protocol optimization research for DNA isolation and RAPD analyses in fonio. High quality DNA was...

Author(s): Danladi Dada KUTA, Emmanuel KWON-NDUNG Stephen DACHI, Oladele BAKARE, and Liasu Adebayo OGUNKANMI

December 2005

Detection of gfp expression from gfp-labelled bacteria spot inoculated onto sugarcane tissues

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker gene has facilitated biological research in plant-microbe interactions. However, there is one major limiting factor in the detection of GFP in living organisms whose cells emit background autofluorescence. In this study,Herbaspirillum sp. B501gfp1 bacterial cells were spot inoculated onto 5 month-old sterile micro-propagated sugarcane tissues to detect if the GFP...

Author(s): Joyce Prisca NJOLOMA, Moriya OOTA, Yuichi SAEKI and Shoichiro AKAO

December 2005

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plantain (Musa spp.) cultivar Agbagba

An Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation system was developed for the production of transgenic plantain [Musa spp. cultivar Agbagba (AAB)]. Apical shoot tips were transformed using Agrobacterium strain EHA105 with the binary vector pCAMBIA 1201, having the hygromycin resistance gene as a selection marker and GUS-INT as a reporter gene. Transient expression of the b-glucuronidase...

Author(s): L. Tripathi, J. N. Tripathi and J. d&#;A. HughesY

December 2005

Effect of harvest stage and drying methods on germination and seed-borne fungi of maize (Zeamays L.) in South West Nigeria

Germination of seed and infection by seed-borne fungi of two maize varieties DMRLSR-W and DMRLSR-Y as affected by stage of harvest and method of drying were studied in the growing seasons of year 2002 and 2003 at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiment was a split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Ears were harvested...

Author(s): Owolade, O. F., Alabi, B. S., Enikuomehin, O.A. and Atungwu, J. J.

December 2005

Effect of agrowastes, pH and temperature variation on the growth of Volvariella volvacea

The effect of pH and temperature variations on the growth of Volvariella volvaceacultivated on various agricultural wastes singly and in various combinations was studied.  A pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 recorded the maximum mycelia yield and the highest mycelia weight was recorded at pH 6.5. The mycelia yield decreased at pH above 6.5 while poor mycelia growth of the mushroom and the least mycelia weight was...

Author(s): Akinyele, B.J. and Adetuyi, F.C.  

December 2005

Comparative effects of Apron plus 50DS and soil amendment on the growth, yield and food components of soybean

Comparative effects of Apron plus 50DS (a systemic fungicide) and soil amendment (poultry droppings) on growth yield and food components of soybean (TGX 1485-1D) were studied. Soybean seeds treated with recommended dose of Apron plus 50DS had lower percentage germination when compared to the other treatments while the untreated seeds (control) had the highest percentage germination. Seeds treated with Apron plus and...

Author(s): A. A. Adegbite, G. O. Agbaje, L. O. Adegbite, L. B. Taiwo and R. O. Awodoyin

December 2005

Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves

Following the solid state fermentation of banana leaves (Musa sapientum lina) by lignin degrading mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), yield of fruiting bodies and compositional changes of the substrate were evaluated using a student parametric “T” test model. The biological efficiency was 5.21 while the total weight of fruit yield was 2.5 kg. The percentage biomass loss was 18.20%. The banana leaves treated...

Author(s): Belewu, M. A. and Belewu, K. Y.

December 2005

Inhibition of aflatoxin-producing aspergilli by lactic acid bacteria isolates from indigenously fermented cereal gruels

A total of six lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were selected from five indigenously fermented cereal gruels and identified as Lactobacillus fermentum OYB, Lb. fermentum RS2, Lb. plantarum MW, Lb. plantarum YO, Lb. brevis WS3, andLactococcus spp. RS3. Six aflatoxin-producing aspergilli were also selected from the various food sources. Two of the isolates,...

Author(s): A. A. Onilude, O. E. Fagade, M. M. Bello and I. F. Fadahunsi

December 2005

Microbiological, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of processed Irish potato fermented in brine solution

The microflora, proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of irish potato (solanumtuberosum) slices fermented in 2.0% brine solution under micro-aerophilic condition for five days at room temperature were studied. The nutritive qualities of the brined- fermented samples were analyzed and organoleptic parameters were accessed through trained panelist. There was an increase in microbial load of the brined-fermented...

Author(s): Adeniyi A. Ogunjobi, Bukola C. Adebayo-Tayo and Adenike A. Ogunshe

December 2005

Comparative antimicrobial activities of aloe vera gel and leaf

The comparative antimicrobial activities of the gel and leaf of Aloe vera were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichophytonmentagraphytes, T. schoeleinii, Microsporium canis and Candida albicans. Ethanol was used for the extraction of the leaf after obtaining the gel from it. Antimicrobial effect was measured by the appearance...

Author(s): Agarry O.O., Olaleye M.T. and Bello-Michael, C.O. 

December 2005

Association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines

The prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene is a member of the human kallikrein gene family and is known that to be tightly regulated by androgens in the male prostate. The presence of PSA is strongly associated with presence of steroid hormone receptors. The aim of this research was to show differential expression and association between steroid hormone receptors and PSA gene expression in breast cancer cell lines....

Author(s): Nosratollah Zarghami, Habib Onsori, Behrangh Alani        

December 2005

Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of growth hormone, thyroid hormones and the amount and constituents of milk in the Sanan goat

The goal of this study was to determine whether serotonin increase the mean plasma concentration of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH),  milk amount and constituents in the Sanan goats. Nine Sanan goats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group received daily infusion of 1, 4 or 8 ng serotonin agonist (hydroxytryptophan) (5HT) for 7 days. Blood and milk samples were collected daily on...

Author(s): H. Khazali, A. Parhiskar and K. Jafari

December 2005

The diversity of antifungal compounds of six South African Terminalia species (Combretaceae) determined by bioautography

A bioautography method was developed to determine the number of antifungal compounds in Terminalia species extracts. Acetone, hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts of six Terminalia species (T. prunioides, T. brachystemma, T. sericea, T. gazensis, T. mollis and T. sambesiaca) were tested against five fungal animal pathogens (Candida...

Author(s): P. Masoko, J.N. Eloff

December 2005

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of extract of Carmellia sinensis (black tea) in rats

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of water extracts of black tea (Camellia sinensis) were studied in sodium oxalate treated rats. Lipid peroxidation was induced in rats by administration of 100 mg/kg body weight sodium oxalate. The protective effect of black tea was assessed by monitoring the serum and tissue levels of malondialdehyde, catalase activity, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)...


December 2005

Preliminary Studies on Piliostigma thonningii seeds: Proximate analysis, mineral composition and phytochemical screening

Qualitative determination of chemical and nutritional composition of Piliostigma thonningii, an underexploited crop seed in Nigeria, was carried out.  Seeds of P. thonningii were found to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, and mineral elements. Mineral analysis of P. thonningii showed the seed as good source of antioxidant micronutrients such as iron, calcium, selenium, zinc...

Author(s): Jimoh F.O. and Oladiji A.T.

December 2005

Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural Venda communities in South Africa against fifteen clinical bacterial species

Fourteen plants used in traditional medicine in the Venda region of South Africa were screened for activity against fifteen bacterial species. Methanol, acetone and hexane extracts and in some cases essential oils were tested using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods. Most of the extracts were active against at least one bacterial species. Methanol and acetone extracts were the most active while Gram...

Author(s): Samie A., , Obi C.L., Bessong P.O. Namrita L.

December 2005

Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta

Sida acuta is a shrub indigenous to pantropical regions. The plant is widely used for its various pharmacological properties. Among compounds of pharmacological interest occurring in the plant, are indoloquinoline alkaloids. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of alkaloids of S. acuta from Burkina Faso. The alkaloids had a good antimicrobial activity against the test...

Author(s): Damintoti Karou, Aly Savadogo, Antonella Canini, Saydou Yameogo, Carla Montesano, Jacques Simpore, Vittorio Colizzi, Alfred S. Traore

December 2005

An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diabetes in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest diseases affecting the citizens of both developed and poor countries. In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily. An ethnobotanical study of plants used by the traditional healers, herbalists and rural dwellers for the treatment of diabetes mellitus was conducted in the Eastern Cape Province. The study revealed 14 plant...

Author(s): P. Erasto, P. O. Adebola, D. S. Grierson and A. J. Afolayan

December 2005

Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna species

Legume flours were prepared from six species of mucuna bean, M. Veracruz mottle, M. rajada, M. cochinchinensis, M. deerigeana, M. pruriens and M. veracruz white. Physicochemical and functional characteristics were carried out on full fat and defatted flours. Bulk density of the flours increased following defatting. Isoelectric point of the proteins lies between 4 and 5. Generally, solubility...

Author(s): Y. A. Adebowale, I. A. Adeyemi and A. A. Oshodi

December 2005

Using rating to evaluate quality of peanut products

Peanuts seeds roasted at 140°C for 40 min for either 25 or 35 min were rated to be of comparable quality with locally available commercial samples. Peanut butter prepared from seeds roasted at160°C for 30 min was also rated to be comparable with commercial samples, while Kwulinkwulis from seeds dry roasted at 150°C for 25 or 30 min prior to oil roasting of mashed seeds at 170°C for 2 min were...

Author(s): B.M. Ogunsanwo, O.O.P. Faboya, O.R. Idowu and G.O. Adewuyi