African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 425

Full Length Research Paper

Heavy metals distribution and lipid profile in the stomach of cow grazed in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

Bikanga Raphaël1*, Obame-Engonga Louis-Clément1, Agnaniet Huguette1, Makani Thomas1, Anguile Jean Jacques1, Lebibi Jacques1, and Menut Chantal2
1Laboratory of Natural Substances and Organometallic synthesis, University of Sciences and Technology of Masuku, P. O. Box 901 Franceville, Gabon. 2Team "Glyco and nanovecteurs for therapeutic targeting", Institute of biomolecules Mousseron, Faculty of Pharmacy, 15 avenue Charles Flahault, 34093 Montpellier, France.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 31 May 2012
  •  Published: 30 June 2012


Essential oils were obtained by hydro distillation of dried leaves from two kinds of Plectranthus tenuicaulis (Hook f.) J. k. Morton grown in Gabon and were analyzed using GC-FID, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR. The main constituent was (R), (E)-6,7-epoxyocimene [(E)-myroxide] (72.2 to 83.8%) with small amounts of (Z)-6,7-epoxyocimene (0.6 to 1.3%), (E) and (Z)-β-ocimene (1.1 to 2.4% and 0.6 to 1.7%). The oils were examined for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activity was tested by using an in vitro radical scavenging activity test and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The essential oils showed antioxidant and DPPH radical scavenging activities, and they displayed the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The oils were less effective than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antimicrobial activity of oils was studied by means of agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils of P. tenuicaulis showed antibacterial activity against microorganisms tested; however, they were unable to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and fungal strains. The reference bacteria were the most sensitive to the essential oils. We also observed a significant anticandidal effect.


Key words: Plectranthus tenuicaulis, essential oil, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity.


AME, Antifungal mixture elios; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; DPPH, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil; MBC, minimum bactericidinal concentration; MFC, minimum fungicidal concentration; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration.