Full Length Research Paper
This study aimed to determine for the first time the levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of enterobacteria isolated from poultry and pigs farms in southern Togo. A cross-sectional study was conducted in south Togo in 70 and 47 poultry and pig farms, respectively. Fecal samples were collected once in each farm and enterobacteria isolated according to recommended techniques. Isolates from each sample were tested for susceptibility to 14 antibiotics by disc diffusion method. A total of 109 and 85 strains were recovered from 72.7% (n=64) and 87.93% (n=50) poultry and pig samples respectively. Respectively for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Salmonella spp. strains, the most important resistances were observed in poultry/pig farms against tetracycline antibiotic (93.1%/67.6%; 96.2%/78.7% and 100%/100%) and the association sulfoxide-trimethoprim (72.4%/81.1%; 66.7%/78.7% and 100%/100%). In general, resistances were higher against penicillin antibiotics like ampicillin (55.17%/54.05%, 46.15%/38.3% and 50.00%/100%) than cephalosporin antibiotics like ceftazidime (0.00%/0.00%, 5.13%/0.00% and 0.00%/0.00%) resistances where very low or absent. Also, resistance to nalidixic Acid (31.03%/16.22%, 33.33%/29.79, 0.00%/0.00%), first generation quinolones, was relatively high than resistance to norfloxacin (10.3%/10.81%; 20.5%/2.13%; 50%/0.00%) a second generation fluoroquinolone. In poultry, 44.83% of E. coli, 50% of Klebsiella spp. and 100% of Salmonella strains were multi-resistant while in pigs, 37.83% and 27.65% of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains showed multi-resistance. In many farms, farmers managed the health of their animals on their own. All surveyed poultry farmers and the majority of pig farmers indicated that they used antibiotics in their farms. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance in animal production in Togo portends a serious problem.
Key words: Antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteria, poultry, pig, Lomé, Togo.
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