African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5195

Full Length Research Paper

Bacterial contamination and risk factors associated with naira notes circulating in Polytechnic Campus, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria

Anidiobu Chioma Oluchi
  • Anidiobu Chioma Oluchi
  • Department of Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 5351, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Anidiobu Vincent Okechukwu
  • Anidiobu Vincent Okechukwu
  • Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic, P.M.B. 5351, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Amasowomwan-Uyi Daberechi Ifunanya
  • Amasowomwan-Uyi Daberechi Ifunanya
  • Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 01 January 2022
  •  Accepted: 24 February 2022
  •  Published: 31 May 2022


The abused Nigerian currency became an issue of concern recently, when the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) launched a nationwide enlightenment campaign aimed at educating the public on the proper handling of Naira notes. The study investigated the current bacterial contamination of Nigerian currency notes as well as the risk factors associated with it in Polytechnic Community Ado- Ekiti, Nigeria. A total of 32 samples of Naira notes, four pieces of each denomination of ?5, ?10, ?20, ?50, ?100, ?200, ?500, and ?1000 were carefully collected from various locations on campus and subjected to standard methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial isolates. A total of 100 structured questionnaires were distributed at random to sample the opinions and views of the Polytechnic campus population on the use and mishandling of Naira notes. The findings revealed that all samples contain bacteria. The ?50 notes had the highest bacterial contamination (18.7%), while the ?5 notes had the lowest bacterial contaminant (7.5%). The most prevalent bacterial contaminants were Escherichia coli (78%), Staphylococcus aureus (66%), Klebsiella species (59%), Micrococcus species (31%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16%). Bacteria contamination was higher in polymer notes than in paper notes. As a result, pathogenic bacteria were discovered on the surface of naira notes, making them useful candidates for food-borne pathogens and increasing the spread of food-borne disease. This result is critical in informing the public about the dangers of dirty currency notes to their health.


Key words: Bacteria, contamination, naira notes, risk-factor.