Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a serious concern in developing countries due to precarious hygiene conditions, inappropriate prescription as well as self-medication and free sale of antibiotics. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of strains producing extended-spectrum beta- lactamase in the Gram negative bacteria isolated in the laboratory. The study was conducted in the Charles De Gaulle Paediatric University Hospital (Ouagadougou) and the Arnaud de Villeneuve Regional University Hospital (Montpellier). Out of the 889 pathological substances (pus, urine and blood) analysed, 175 germs were isolated among which 110 were Gram negative bacteria (62.8%). 48.2% of the Gram negative bacteria were positive to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Among the 110 Gram negative bacteria isolated, 101 were Enterobacteria and 9 other Gram negative bacteria. No extended-spectrum beta-lactamase was found in the other Gram negative bacteria and 52.5% of Enterobacteria were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase positive. As for the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, 60.4% were Escherichia coli and 32% were Klebsiella pneumoniae. 50.9% of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase came from pus and 41.5% from urine. In addition, 64.6% of hospitalised patients had an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype compared to 24.5% for out-patients. The results show the importance of the phenomenon and should help to better take care of this scourge because antibiotics despite everything, always save millions of lives.
Key words: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), enterobacteria, gram-negative bacilli, inpatients, out-patients.