African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5232

Full Length Research Paper

Co-infection of HIV and parasites in China: Cryptosporidium prevalence in environmental water in HIV/AIDS high endemic areas

Li-Guang Tian1, Jia-Xu Chen1, Peter Steinmann1,2, Yu-Chun Cai1, Xiao-Mei Tong1, Jian Guo1, Lan-Hua Li3, Qin Liu1 and Xiao-Nong Zhou1*
  1National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Collaborating Centre for Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai 200025, China. 2Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland. 3Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 October 2011
  •  Published: 16 November 2011



The purpose of this study is to explore relationship between water contamination ofCryptosporidium parasite and co-infection of HIV with parasites in HIV/AIDS highly endemic areas in China, in order to understand the waterborne transmission routes ofCryptosporidium parasite in local environmental settings. The prevalence and contamination degree of Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water and drinking water samples was detected in HIV/AIDS highly endemic areas in Anhui province, China. The surface water was collected from rivers and ponds, and drinking water was obtained from well water, bottled water and tap water. All water samples were detected by using Filta-Max Xpress method employed with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and fluorescence staining techniques. The main results showed that a total of 32 water samples were collected, of which 9 were collected from the surface water, including 6 of pond water and 3 of the river water; 23 were from the drinking water, including 19 of well water, 3 of bottled water and 1 of tap water. The positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 30.43% in the drinking water, and 55.56% in surface water. The positive rate of Cryptosporidium in pond water was significantly higher than in the river water, and that in bottled water was higher than in well water. The highest density of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the surface water samples was 8000/100 L, much higher than that in well water (59/100 L) and bottled water (39/100 L). In conclusion, Cryptosporidium contamination in local surface water is serious and is a high risk to people lived with HIV-positive (PLWH) to be infected withCryptosporidium spp. And water contamination with Cryptosporidium oocysts is one of the major causes that lead to Cryptosporidium infection for HIV infected cases. It is necessary to carry out surveillance on Cryptosporidium infection in people living with HIV positive.


Key words: HIV/AIDS: Cryptosporidium: Environmental water: China.