West Nile virus is a member of genus Flavivirus that cause emerging disease. It is transmitted with mosquitoes, Culex species. No studies have been carried out to determine seroprevalence of WNV antibody in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the WNV seroprevalence and its associated factors in health facilities in the Borena District. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to August, 2016. A total of 519 consecutive acute febrile patients attending the outpatient departments of Teltelle Health Center, Yabello and Moyale Hospital were enrolled. Data on socio-demographic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Three to five milliliter blood samples were collected from all participants and screened for WNV antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. The overall prevalence of anti-WNV IgG and IgM was 7.3% and 2.7% respectively. Two hundred six (39.7%) of the study participants were from Teltelle Health center, 36.6% were from Moyale Hospital, and the remaining study participants (23.7%) were from Yabello Hospital. Female participants (3.3%) had higher rate of WNV IgM compared to males (2%), but male was account higher in IgG antibody (8.8%). This study provides evidence that WNV infection is prevalent in the study area. The observed low awareness of participants underlines the urgent need for further community based studies to determine the environmental, and host factors that determine the extent of exposure to WNV infection in the area for appropriate control and prevention planning.
Keywords: West Nile Virus, Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay, Ethiopia