African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5200

Table of Content: 14 May, 2013; 7(20)

May 2013

A review on the detoxification of organophosphorus compounds by microorganisms

Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). These synthetic compounds reside in the environment and cause serious pollution problems. Organophosphorus compounds can be detoxified rapidly by hydrolysis on exposure to environment, which are liable to be influenced by abiotic and biotic factors. Microorganisms isolated from different niches are the predominant entities...

Author(s): Yongliang Zheng, Lifang Long, Yuanyuan Fan, Jianping Gan, Jianping Fang and Weibin Jin

May 2013

Utilization of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection for cervical cancer screening in developing countries: A myth or reality

Persistent infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered to be the main causative agent of cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Of the more than 30 genotypes capable of infecting the anogenital tract, it is estimated that, worldwide, HPV 16 and 18 cause 70% of the cervical cancers. Control through primary prevention has become a distinct reality through a prophylactic vaccine, which may take quite some...

Author(s): Adeola Fowotade and Manga Mohammed M.  

May 2013

Host cells response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections - role of quorum sensing molecules

Cell-to-cell signaling is vital not only for communication among superior multicellular organisms, but also among bacteria and for host-pathogen interactions during infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen involved in a wide spectrum of acute and chronic infections, also causing severe nosocomial complications. Among its multiple virulence determinants, the quorum sensing...

Author(s): Alina Maria Holban, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc and Veronica LazÇŽr

May 2013

Prospect of beneficial microorganisms applied in potato cultivation for sustainable agriculture

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a widely planted crop. The primary obstacles for potato production are the high demands of fertilizers and the occurrence of widespread diseases. Traditional intensively managed agroecosystems depend on fertilizers and biocides, which could induce soil degradation and environmental problems. This review emphasizes the effects of inoculating crops with plant growth-promoting...

Author(s): Fasi Wu, , , #, Wanfu Wang, , , #, Yantian Ma, Yongjun Liu, Xiaojun Ma, Lizhe An and Huyuan Feng

May 2013

Identification and differentiation of Candida species using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the phospholipase B gene

Candida species are the major cause of mortality in both immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Therefore, the early diagnosis and differentiation of Candida species isolated from clinical samples is principally important due to their inherently variable antifungal resistance pattern. Herein, rapid and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular method was developed for the...

Author(s): Nabil .S. Harmal, Alireza Khodavandi, Mohammed .A. Alshawsh, Farida Jamal, Zamberi Sekawi, Ng Kee Peng and Pei Pei Chong

May 2013

Actinomycetes from saline and non-saline soils of Saharan palm groves: Taxonomy, ecology and antagonistic properties

This work deals with the taxonomy, ecology and antagonist properties of actinomycetesisolated from soils of 7 Saharan palm groves. These microorganisms constitute an important part of the microflora of non-saline soils, but their density is very low in saline soils, particularly when the electrical conductivity exceeds...

Author(s): Salim Mokrane, Noureddine Bouras, Nasserdine Sabaou and Florence Mathieu

May 2013

Investigation of the association between mean platelet volume and Helicobacter pylori gastritis

Helicobacter pylori is one of the common infection of humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa related tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Whether H. pylori gastritis is a local inflammation or contributes to systemic inflammation remains unclear. Mean platelet volume is an indicator of systemic inflammation that can be determined from routine hemogram analyses. The present...

Author(s): Abdullah Ozgur Yeniova, Metin Kucukazman, Naim Ata, KurÅŸad Dal, Ayse Kefeli, Hakan Bulus, Kadir Okhan Akin, Derun Taner Ertugrul and Yasar Nazligul

May 2013

Prevalence of camel tuberculosis at Akaki abattoir in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

A cross sectional study was conducted on 420 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki abattoir from October 2011 to March 2012 to determine the apparent prevalence of camel tuberculosis and to see its association with sex, age, origin and body condition of camels. Camels were examined for the presence of gross tuberculosis lesions and further cultured to isolate members of the genus Mycobacterium. The overall...

Author(s): Surafel Kasaye, Wassie Molla and Gobena Amini

May 2013

Isolation and molecular characterization of non tuberculosis mycobacteria from skin positive reactors and pathological lesions of cattle at Bako, Western Ethiopia

A cross-sectional study was conducted on 858 cattle (371 recruited from Bako Agricultural Research Center, BARC and 487 from Bako municipal abattoir) from October 2009 to April 2010 to isolate and characterize Mycobacterial species from Skin positive reactors and pathological lesion positive cattle. To this effect, comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT) test, post mortem examination, bacteriological culturing, and...

Author(s): Temesgen Ayana, Ketema Tafess, Gezahegne Mamo, Tesfaye Sisay Tessemaand Gobena Ameni

May 2013

Antioxidant activities of Bacillus simplex XJ-25 isolated from sand biological soil crusts and its properties

XJ-25, a strain with strong antioxidant activity was isolated from sand biological soil crusts in Gurban Tonggut Desert, Xinjiang, China. Strain XJ-25 is closely related to Bacillus simplex through the 16s rDNA sequencing combined with morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis. The medium for optimal antioxidant activity was NB with 1.5 g/Lglucose. Based on kinetic assay, antioxidant activity began...

Author(s): Z.-R. Wang, J.-P. Sheng, X.-L. Tian, T.-T. Wu, W.-Z. Liu and L. Shen

May 2013

Microbiological characterization of the Egyptian soft white cheese and identification of its dominant yeasts

We conducted this study to evaluate the differences in microflora and physicochemical properties of some traditionally manufactured soft white cheeses upon purchase from Zagazig city, Egypt, in 2010 and 2011. A total of 168 samples were analyzed for both spoilage (total viable count, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and coliform group) and pathogenic (Salmonella spp.,...

Author(s): Mohamed I. Hegazy and S. A. Mahgoub

May 2013

River Wiwi: A source of Schistosoma haematobium infection in school children in Kumasi, an urban African setting

In Ghana and many other sub-Sahara African countries, schistosomiasis is usually endemic in rural poor communities and whenever it is detected among urban settlers, it is usually attributed to prior visits by such patients to endemic rural areas. In this study, the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium infection among basic school children in two African urban settings along River Wiwi in Kumasi, Ghana...

Author(s): Sammy C. K. Tay, Gideon Kye-Duodu and Stephen Y. Gbedema

May 2013

Causative agents of bacterial meningitis

Central nervous system infections include several clinical involvements with a wide clinical distribution and variable course and outcome. One of the most frequently encountered infections is bacterial meningitis which may lead to serious consequences with respect to development of complications. This  study has been conducted with the aim to investigate the causative agents of bacterial meningitis. One hundred...

Author(s): Mustafa SaÄŸlam, Yasemin Zer, and Ä°clal Balci

May 2013

Evaluation of locally available substrates for cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in Jimma, Ethiopia

A total of eight locally available substrates and substrate combinations were tested for their productivity and biological efficiency (BE) for cultivation of commercial mushroom strain (Pleurotus ostreatus). Spawn preparation and running were carried out following standard methods. Main substrates were steam sterilized for 1 h and were inoculated with 10% spawn. The inoculated main substrates were arranged in a...

Author(s): Beje Gume, Diriba Muleta and Dawit Abate

May 2013

Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis and detection of its virulence factor genes in lambs presenting with encephalitis in Xinjiang province, China

In order to investigate the reasons of lamb death, 11 bacteria were isolated from the brain, liver and other tissues of natural infectious lambs presenting neurological symptoms and septicaemia as the main clinical feature from different farm of two regions in Xinjiang, China in recent years. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis according to morphological, cultural and biochemical characteri-zation....

Author(s): ZHOU Xia, WANG Xichu, GUO Bingjiao and WANG Xiaolan

May 2013

Essential oils against Candida spp: in vitro antifungal activity of Origanum vulgare

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and determine chemical composition of Origanum vulgare essential oils. Nine Candida albicans (five clinical animal isolates and four ATCC strains), and three non-albicans species were studied; broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used. Eight samples of commercial O. vulgare were submitted to...

Author(s): Marlete Brum Cleff, Isabel Madrid, Ana Raquel Meinerz, Mário Carlos Araújo Meireles, João Roberto Braga de Mello, Maria Regina Rodrigues and Jesús Jaime Hernández Escareño

May 2013

Development of probiotic cultures in a symbiotic soy beverage using different types of carbohydrate

The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of a soluble soy extract using lactic starters such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus with L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. (SAB) and Lactobacillus casei, varying the formulations with respect to the type of carbohydrate used, such as sucrose and glucose. Twelve formulations were...

Author(s): Brandão, H. C. A. D. N. T. M., Brach, E. N., Mendonça, S. N. T. G., Brandão, W. A. P. L. N. T. M., Coelho, S. R. M. and Christ, D.

May 2013

Preparation and antimicrobial activity of O-(benzoyl) chitosan derivatives against some plant pathogens

O-(benzoyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as antimicrobial agents against some plant pathogens. The chemical structures were characterized by infra-red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and the data confirmed that the acylate reaction took place at O-position of chitosan. The antimicrobial activity was investigated against bacteria of Agrobacterium...

Author(s): Mohamed E. I. Badawy and Entsar I. Rabea

May 2013

Microbial quality of retail mayonnaise-base salads

The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of retailmayonnaise-based salads samples. A total of 432 samples were collected between 1 February 2008 and 31 July  2009 in Ankara. In the present study, pH values of the samples were measured in the range of 4.05-7.10 (average pH=5.69). The samples with pH higher than 4.6 (n=236/432, 54.6 %) were carried out for...

Author(s): Muhittin Tayfur, Seda Cakır, Tugce Orkun, Aydan Ercan and Nurcan Yabancı

May 2013

Degradation and detoxification of reactive azo dyes by native bacterial communities

The initial selections of bacterial strains were based on effective decolourization of the medium by visible observation and UV-Vis spectral analysis. The operational parameters for dye degradation by the bacterial strains was observed from 6.5 to 7.5 pH range, 35 to 45°C with 100 mg/l dye concentration in static condition for 3 days incubation. The FTIR analysis reveals the modification of the functional groups...

Author(s): Vivekanandan Neelambari, Vishwanathan Maharani, Shanmugam Vijayalakshmi and Thangavel Balasubramanian

May 2013

Activities of enzyme adenosine deaminase in serum of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with selenium and copper

The aim of this study was to evaluate adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in serum of lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with selenium and copper. We used 33 lambs, divided into five groups: Group A was composed of five healthy animals (not infected). The groups B, C, D and E comprised seven animals each infected with H. contortus.  Group B was not treated (positive control), group C...

Author(s): Aleksandro S. Da Silva, Guilherme C. Fausto, Thirssa H. Grando, Carlos A. Cadore, Victor C. Pimentel, Jeandre A. Jaques, Maria R.C. Schetinger, Sonia T. A. Lopes, Silvia G. Monteiro, and Marta L.R. Leal

May 2013

Heavy metal resistance of bacteria and its impact on the production of antioxidant enzymes

Microorganisms exposed to heavy metal stress are vulnerable to the toxic conditions caused by reactive oxygen species. The aim of this study was to investigate the tolerance of stressed bacteria and detect the ability of some resistant bacterial strains to produce antioxidant enzymes under heavy metal stress. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of heavy metals and antibiotic sensitivity were investigated for some...

Author(s): Khalid A. Hussein and Jin Ho Joo

May 2013

Particle swarm optimization based estimation of HIV-1 viral load in resource limited settings

Viral load (VL) testing is highly important for diagnosis and staging of HIV-1 infection and for initiating antiretroviral treatment in AIDS patients. However, due to the cost and availability of viral load testing instruments, VL testing is not being performed in many developing and underdeveloped countries. Such countries depend on CD4 tests as an alternative. In this work, a method for estimating the HIV-1 viral load...

Author(s): K. Kamalanand and P. Mannar Jawahar

May 2013

Molecular detection of β-lactamases and aminoglycoside resistance genes among Escherichia coli isolates recovered from medicinal plant

Cross contamination from composting farm manure and surface run-off waters or the application of untreated sewage, or manure can be sources of pathogenic microorganisms that contaminate fruits and vegetables in the field. Therefore, the current study was aimed to detect the incidence of Escherichia coli isolates from herbs samples and the molecular detection of β-Lactamases and aminoglycoside...

Author(s): Aleisa, A. M., Ashgan, M. H., Alnasserallah, A. A., Mahmoud, M. H and Moussa, I. M.

May 2013

Production of a novel Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus sp. SK13.002

A β-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (β-CGTase) from a new alkalitolerant Bacillus sp. SK 13.002 strain which can significantly hydrolyze starch into short linear saccharides, in addition to production of cyclodextrins (CDs) was produced. The hydrolytic activity of this CGTase as a side reaction is thought to be due to partial retention of ancestral enzyme function from...

Author(s): Tao Sun, Rebaone Letsididi, Beilei Pan and Bo Jiang

May 2013

A study of expression performed for the construction of Staphylococcus aureus adhesins FnBPB/ClfA and immunogenicity of the expressed product

In this this study, a cloning plasmid named pMD19-FnBPB-ClfA was constructed, by PCR specific amplifications of genes from region D, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBPB) and region A in clumping factor A (ClfA), all from Staphylococcus aureus. Splicing by overlap extension using PCR tandem gene FnBPB-ClfA was performed and then gene segments of pMD19-FnBPB-ClfA were inserted into a prokaryotic expression vector named...

Author(s): FAN Xin, HAO Yong-qing, ZHANG Ai-rong and CHEN Xiao-jie

May 2013

Identification of races 1, 2 and 3 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by molecular markers

The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a major biotic constraint for tomato production. The pathogenicity of this fungus is variable and it has not been well characterized in tomato. 30 FOL isolates representative of the three races were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and restriction fragment length...

Author(s): Daniel Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Clébia Maria Alves de Almeida, Carolina Barbosa Malafaia, Maria Luiza Ribeiro Bastos da Silva, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia, Vera Lucia de Menezes Lima, and Márcia Vanusa da Silva

May 2013

Microbiological and chemical properties of fig vinegar produced in Turkey

Fig vinegar is a traditional fermented product produced mainly from fresh or dried fig in Turkey. The aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical properties of traditional fig vinegars. Vinegar samples produced with different receipts by using different types of raw materials and the fermentation conditions, were collected from eight different regions of Turkey and analysis results were...

Author(s): Ilkin Yucel Sengun

May 2013

Antibacterial effect of gaseous and aqueous ozone in root canals contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

This present study attempted to identify the antibacterial effects of aqueous and gaseous ozone in human root canals that are contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The differences and antibacterial effects of gaseous and aqueous ozone (manual and ultrasonic) have not been compared to each other yet in any studies. Eighty single-root premolar teeth were prepared and then disinfected and...

Author(s): Ihsan HUBBEZOGLU, Recai ZAN, Zeynep SUMER, Tutku TUNÇ, Feridun HURMUZLU and Sadullah UCTASLI

May 2013

Methodologies for the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of propolis

Currently, there is a global interest in propolis research due to its various biological activities. In vitro methods are useful for preliminary investigation of the antibacterial activity of propolis extracts. The disk diffusion method and broth macrodilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used in this study, with some modifications, to evaluate the antibacterial...

Author(s): Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento,  Nathália Ursoli Ferreira, Edna Aparecida Barizon, Bruno Alves Rocha, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz and Andresa Aparecida Berretta,

May 2013

Preliminary study related to specific nutrient synergy-modulation of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from dairy products

Increasing resistance to currently used antimicrobials has resulted in the evaluation of other methods to rectify this growing health concern. Herein, we present an investigation to examine the modulation of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria grown in the presence of a specific nutrient synergy (SNS) known as Epican Forte (EF). We have conducted tests on thirty colonies of each of the following bacterial...

Author(s): Steve Harakeh, Imane Saleh, Ahmad Hawi, Hani Mutlak A. Hassan, SafwanTayeb, Maged Mahmoud, Esam Azhar, Archana Iyer,  Taha Kumosani, Aleksandra Niedweicki, Matthias Rath, Elie Barbour,

May 2013

Ortho VITROS enhanced chemiluminescence assay for detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies: Determination of a “borderline” range

The diagnostic efficacy of Ortho VITROS chemiluminescence assay (CIA) in detecting antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the clinical significance of specimens with low sample-to-cut off (S/Co) ratio was analysed, comparing the positive rate for CIA in 5,550 consecutive outpatients with enzyme-immunoassay (EIA). In parallel testing, 43 samples (0.8%) were low positive by CIA (S/Co ratio from 1.0 to 8.0) but...

Author(s): Arnolfo Petruzziello, Nicola Coppola, Maurizio Fraulo , Giovanna Loquercio, Rosa Azzaro, Anna Maria Diodato, Vincenzo Iervolino, Gaetano Di Costanzo, Catia Addolorata Di Macchia, Tommaso Di Meo, Rosario Ferro, Pasquale Giuliano, Giuseppe Pasquale and Carmela Cacciapuoti

May 2013

The behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Montevideo in raw carrot and in fresh unpasteurized carrot juice

The behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Agona andSalmonella Montevideo in raw carrot at 30 ± 1 and 3 ± 1°C and in unpasteurized carrot juice at 3 ± 1, 12 ± 1, 20 ± 1, 30 ± 1 and 37 ± 1°C was determined. Fresh juice was obtained from carrots in the laboratory. Raw carrots were collected from a market...

Author(s): Israel A. Palma-Quiroz, Carlos A. Gómez-Aldapa, M. del Refugio Torres-Vitela, Esmeralda Rangel-Vargas, Eva M. Santos-López, Angélica Villarruel-López and Javier Castro-Rosas

May 2013

Efficacy of the essential oil of Origanum glandulosum Desf against skin infections With PVL-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains in mice

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by staphylococcal toxins including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) have increased these last years. Treatment of these complicated infections is often difficult. The search for new methods and new antimicrobial substances is necessary. Natural products such as essential oils appear among...

Author(s): KHADIR Abdelmounaïm, BENDAHOU Mourad, BENBELAÏD Fethi, GHELLAÏ Lotfi, ABDOUNE Mohamed Amine, BELLAHSENE Chafika, ZENATI Fatima, ABDELOUAHID Djamel Eddine, MUSELLI Alain, PAOLLINI Julien, DESJOBERT Jean-Marie and COSTA Jean

May 2013

Straminipiles (Oomycota) developing on the eggs of an African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell in water bodies of Poland

The straminipiles (Oomycota), lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganism, growing on the eggs of an African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, in water of different trophicity in Poland have been investigated. Twenty-one (21) species were recorded. The largest number of species occurred on eggs in water from River Biala and Pond Fosa (more biogenic), the smallest in water from River Suprasl and Pond...

Author(s): Bazyli Czeczuga, Ewa Czeczuga-Semeniuk, Adrianna Semeniuk and Janusz Semeniuk

May 2013

Effect of physiochemical factors on autoaggregation and adhesion of Flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates

Flavobacterium johnsoniae-like isolates are able to form biofilms and have been associated with disease outbreaks in fish. Surface colonization requires microbial adhesion strategies that are mediated by specific surface-associated molecules. Blocking or inhibiting these molecules would facilitate the identification of adhesins involved in surface adherence and development of appropriate anti-adhesion strategies...

Author(s): Hafizah Yousuf Chenia and Nicholas Chadwick

May 2013

Efficacy of plant extracts, traditional materials and antibacterial chemicals against Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on tomato seed

The potency of mustard and ginger rhizome extracts, lemon juice, Atella (residue of traditional Ethiopian beer) and cow urine in controlling tomato seed borne pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) was evaluated. Artificially inoculated seeds were treated by dipping for 30 min, 3 h, 12 h or 24 h. Streptomycin (0.5%), sodium hypochlorides (1%) and control treatments were similarly applied. The test...

Author(s): Misrak Kebede, Amare Ayalew and Mohammed Yesuf 

May 2013

Effects of various extracts from Pistacia eurycarpa Yalt. on growth duration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various extracts obtained fromPistacia eurycarpa Yalt. on the exact time of appearance of the colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on solid media. For this purpose, the fatty acid compositions of the fixed oils were analyzed using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) in the fruit and peels. The fixed oils and the...

Author(s): Merih ÅžIMÅžEK, Nedim SULTAN,  Ilkay ERDOÄžAN ORHAN, and Yüksel KAN

May 2013

Antimicrobial potential and chemical constituent of Mikania micrantha H. B. K.

The aerial parts of Mikania micrantha H. B. K. were prepared with different polarities solvents by the associated ultrasonic extracting method. The screening antimicrobial activities assays were designed against fungi (Fusarium solani, Phytophthora parasiticaDestur, Pythium aphanidermatum, and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and bacteria (Ralstonia dolaanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv....

Author(s): Yan Li, Bin-bin Shen, Jun Li, Yuan Li, Xia-xia Wang, and Ao-cheng Cao

May 2013

The discriminative power in determining genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates: Comparing ERIC-PCR with AFLP

This present study was performed to investigate genetic diversity of Escherichia coliisolates from healthy cattle while comparing two methods namely, PCR assay for enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences (ERIC-PCR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Our study showed that ERIC-PCR is an appropriate/efficient method for determining diversity of E. coli, providing results...

Author(s): Luka FAJS, Mateja JELEN, Maja BORIĆ, Tanja ĐAPA, Darja ŽGUR-BERTOK and Marjanca STARČIČ ERJAVEC