African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2285

Full Length Research Paper

Genetic diversity of pvcsp and pvs25 in Plasmodium vivax isolates in malaria-endemic areas in Asia, Africa, and America: A systematic review

Bashir Abdirahman Guled
  • Bashir Abdirahman Guled
  • Graduate Program in Bioclinical Sciences, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Pathumthani, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar
Wanna Chiajaroenkul
  • Wanna Chiajaroenkul
  • Center of Excellence in Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Pathumthani, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar
Kesara Na-Bangchang
  • Kesara Na-Bangchang
  • Drug Discovery and Development Center, Office of Advanced Science and Technology, Thammasat University (Rangsit Campus), Pathumthani, Thailand.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 03 April 2022
  •  Accepted: 25 May 2023
  •  Published: 30 June 2023


Analysis of genetic diversity is an important tool for evaluating Plasmodium vivax drug resistance, relapse patterns, and vaccine development. P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp) is involved in sporozoite binding to liver cells. The three pvcsp patterns, i.e., VK210, VK247, or P. vivax-like types, are indentified in P. vivax isolates, which are characterized by repeated sequences. The VK210 pattern is a major pvcsp genetic diversity distributed worldwide, demonstrating P. vivax variation. Moreover, the circumsporozoite proteins play an essential role in parasite transformation in mosquito development.  Among various P. vivax sexual stage antigens, pvs25 is an important antigen for transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) development. This systemic review focuses on the analysis of current information on the genetic diversity of pvcsp and pvs25 in P. vivax isolates from different malaria-endemic areas. The prevalence and patterns of pvcsp and pvs25 reported from various studies depend on geographical distribution and the time of sample collection. The information might facilitate further vaccine development and P. vivax control and elimination.

Key words: Plasmodium vivax, genetic diversity, Pvcsp, Pvs25, transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV).