African Journal of
Plant Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Plant Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0824
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 785

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium on farm plantations of various agroeclogical zones of Punjab, Pakistan

Syed Muhammad Akmal Rahim1*, Shahida Hasnain2 and Jabeen Farkhanda3            
1Punjab Forest Department, Pakistan. 2Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Punjab, Pakistan. 3Department of Botany, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 15 April 2011
  •  Published: 06 December 2011


The immense impact of trees in the development of a country cannot be denied and over-emphasized. Pakistan has a narrow forest resource base extending over only about 4.8% (4.59% excluding farmland plantations) of its area, which is insufficient to provide the material needs for the growing population, expanding and to retard and arrest the ongoing environmental and ecological degradation process. Based on physiographic, climate and ecology, Pakistan is divided into nine major ecological or vegetative zones, which are further sub-divided into 18 habitat types, an arrangement for the development of protected areas system in terms of representative ecotypes. During the survey of farm plantations, about 400 soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical analysis was conducted for the comparison of the four agro ecological zones of the Punjab Province of Pakistan with regards to agroforestry. A comparison of the characteristics of soils taken from various farm plantations necessitated a prior evaluation of their calcium magnesium, sodium and potassium in order to ascertain whether the soils were similar or not.  In case of agroforestry, the type of soil is one of the major factors for the classification of different suitable species of plants. The results of the soil analysis of various agro ecological zones and the consequent recommendation of the associated suitable species, aids the agrofarmers to pick out the best possible option.


Key words: Soil analysis, agro-ecological zones, agroforestry, calcium magnesium,sodium, potassium.