African Journal of
Political Science and International Relations

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pol. Sci. Int. Relat.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0832
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPSIR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 403

Full Length Research Paper

The internal and external roles of Iraqi popular mobilization forces

Ayman El-Dessouki
  • Ayman El-Dessouki
  • Department of Political Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 11 July 2017
  •  Accepted: 11 September 2017
  •  Published: 31 October 2017


Al Khaldi K (2017). Kuwaiti-Iraqi Border Crisis Escalates. The New Arab, 1.


Alaaldin R (2016). How to resolve Iraq's Shiite militia problem.



Al-Rashed A (2017). Difference between Iraq's Sahwat and Popular Mobilization militias. 



Amnesty International (2017). Iraq: turning a blind eye the arming of the popular mobilization units. London: Amnesty International Ltd.; Al Zaabi, Personel Communication.


Anderson S (2016). We Do Not Need America's Support. Foreign Policy. 



Ardemagni E (2016). The Gulf monarchies' complex fight against Daesh. NATOW Review. 



Ataman M (2016). The impact of Iranian over-expansionism on regional politics. Daily Sabah. 



Azar E (1990). The Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory & Cases. Aldershot: Dartmouth Pub Co, 7, 11, 12.


Beydoun KA, Zahawi HD (2016). Divesting from Sectarianism: Reimagining Relations between Iran and the Arab Gulf States. J. Int. Affairs. 69(2):47-63.


El-Dessouki A (2015). Stability Dilemma in the Gulf Regional System, al Mustaqbal al Arabi Journal, 434, 73; Ardemagni, The Gulf monarchies.


Future Center (2016). Legalizing Sectarianism: Consequences of Incorporating the Popular Mobilization Forces into Iraq's Army. Policy Brief. No. 56.


Goldman ZK, Rapp-Hooper M (2013). Conceptualizing Containment: The Iranian Threat and the Future of Gulf Security. Polit. Sci. Quart. 128(4):589-616.


Haddad F (2015). The Hashd: Redrawing the Military and Political Map of Iraq. 



Haghshenass F (2008). Iran's Asymmetric Naval Warfare. Policy Focus, Washington Institute for Near East Polic. 87:5-10.


Jian W (2005). Localising Public Diplomacy: The role of sub-national actors in nation branding, Place Branding 2(1).


Kalian Y (2016). Iran's Hezbollah Franchise in Iraq: Lessons from Lebanon's Shiite Militias. 


Katzman K, Humud CE (2015). Iraq: Politics and Governance. Congressional Research Service. 



Knights M (2016). The Future of Iraq's Armed Forces. Baghdad: Al-Bayan Center Publications Series. 8:23.


Long DE (2008). Countering Asymmetrical Warfare in the 21st Century: A Grand Strategic Vision. Strat. Insights J. 7 (3):1-9.


McGrew A (2011). Globalization of Global Politics, in J. Baylis, S. Smith & P. Owens. (Eds.), Globalization of World Politics Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 14-33.


Osman T (2017). Iran's Play for Middle Eastern Leadership. 



Peter H (2011). Transnational Actors, in: Oxford Bibliographies Online: International Relations, Ed. By Cathal J. Nolan. New York: Oxford University Press.


Rawabet Center for Research and Strategic Studies (2016). Popular Crowd Forces in Iraq (Al-Hashd al-Shaabi). Origin and Future "survey. 



Robinson L (2016). Assessment of the Politico-Military Campaign to Counter ISIL and Options for Adaptation. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation. pp. 17-18.


Roggio B (2015). Popular Mobilization Committee militia threatens to strike and destroy' the Saudi Government. 



Salman M, Geeraerts G (2015). Strategic Hedging and China's Economic Policy in the Middle East. China Report, 51(2):104-105;


Sherwood L (2006). Small States' Strategic Hedging for Security and Influence. Trends Research & Advisory. 



Salem P, Slim R (2016). Iraq is Struggling Forward and Needs Help. 



Sattar O (2016). How Iraq's PMU law is disrupting national unity efforts. 



Stepanova E (2008). Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict Ideological and Structural Aspects. SIPRI Research Report. 23:14-19.


The Economist (2015a). Iran and Shia militias: The Shia crescendo. March 28. 



The Economist (2015). Islamic State: The caliphate strikes back. May 23. 



The Economist (2016). Islamic State in Iraq: The last battle. 



Tollast R (2016). Inside Iraq's Popular Mobilization Units. The National Interest. May 23. 



Toumaj A (2016). Analysis: Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces in Iran's game plan. 



Wehrey F (2016). The Iran deal sharpens the region's sectarian divide. In Islam in a changing Middle East: The Gulf's Escalating Sectarianism. POMEPS BRIEFINGS, 28, 49.