International Journal of
Vocational and Technical Education

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Voc. Tech. Educ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-534X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJVTE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 115

Full Length Research Paper

Environmental implications of water as a natural resource based business: The case of non-revenue water in Kisumu City, Kenya

Onyango Teresa Aoko
  • Onyango Teresa Aoko
  • Department of Agronomy and Environmental Studies, Rongo University, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Nyamai Daniel Odinde
  • Nyamai Daniel Odinde
  • Department of Agronomy and Environmental Studies, Rongo University, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar
Okeyo-Owuor J. B.
  • Okeyo-Owuor J. B.
  • Department of Research and Innovation, Rongo University, Kenya.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 25 May 2022
  •  Accepted: 19 July 2022
  •  Published: 31 August 2022


Awopetu MS, Coker Ao, Aribisala JO, Awopetu SO (2013). Water Quality In A Pipe Distribution Network: A Case Study Of A Communal Water Distribution Network In Ibadan, Nigeria. Water Resources Management 171:175-186.


AWWA (2019). Key performance indicators for Non-Revenue Water. AWWA Water Loss Control Committee 112(1):20-30.


Baker B, Aldridge c, Omer A (2016). Water: Availability and use. Mississippi State University Extension 2016. P 3011.


Donkor EA, Asce SM, Mazzuchi TA, Soyer R, Roberson JA (2014). Urban Water Demand Forecasting: Review of Methods and Models. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 140(2):146-159.


Fontanazza C, Notaro V, Puleo V, Nicolosi P, Freni G (2015). Contaminant intrusion through leaks in water distribution system: Experimental analysis. Procedia engineering 119(1):426-433.


Frauendorfer R, Liemberger R (2010). The issues and challenges of reducing Non Revenue Water. Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Asian Development Bank.



IWMI Annual Report (2017). Why the world is fast approaching water crisis in the near future. Colombo, Sri Lanka. International Water Management Institute (IWMI). ISSN 1017-5954. P 36.


Kingdom B, Liemberger R Marin P (2006). The Challenge of Reducing Non-Revenue Water (NRW) in Developing Countries. How the Private Sector Can Help: A Look at Performance-Based Service Contracting, Washington DC, The World Bank.


Konikow L, Kendy E (2005). Groundwater depletion: A global problem. Hydro geology journal 13(1):317-320.


Liemberger R, Wyatt A (2019). Quantifying the global Non-Revenue Water problem. Water Supply 19(3): 831-837.


Liu W, Park S, Bailey R (2020). Quantifying the stream flow response to groundwater abstractions for irrigation or drinking water at catchment scale using SWAT and SWAT-MODFLOW. Environment Sciences Europe 32(113):1-25.


Saria J (2015). Effects of water pipe leaks on water quality and on Non-Revenue Water: Case of Arusha municipality. Journal of Water Resources and Ocean Science 4(6): 86-91.


USAID and African Water Association (AfWA) (2015). USAID Further Advancing, The Blue Revolution Initiative (FABRI) (2015). Africa Non- Revenue Water Program Synthesis Report.



Water Services Regulatory Board (WASREB) (2019). Final report on Non-Revenue Water audit of the Water Service Providers. Kenya.