International NGO Journal

  • Abbreviation: Int. NGOJ
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1993-8225
  • DOI: 10.5897/INGOJ
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 265


The parallel state: Neoliberalism in Haiti and the reliance on NGOs

Jean Max Charles
  • Jean Max Charles
  • Department of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Florida Gulf Cost University, The Water School, AB9, Rm 333 10501 FGCU Blvd, Fort Myers, United States.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 02 March 2023
  •  Accepted: 23 March 2023
  •  Published: 31 May 2023


Ahmed S, Potter DM (2006). NGOs in International Politics. Kumarian Press.


Arsht A (2014). Urbanization in Latin America. Atlantic Council.


Arthur C (2002). In Focus Haiti: A Guide to the People, Politics, and Culture. Latin America Bureau. Research and Action.


Brinkerhoff DW, Goldsmith AA (1988). The challenge of administrative reform in post- Duvalier Haiti: Efficiency, equity, and the prospects for systemic change. International Review of Administrative Sciences 54:89-114.


Charles JM (2002). Psychco-sociological Analysis of Political Uprising and Violence in Haiti from (1986-1991). Thesis presented for the Title of License in Sociology, Haiti State University.


Crémieux B (1996). Privatisation des Entreprises d'État en Haïti: Rapport de Mission. Centre Canadien d'Etude et de Coopération Internationale.


Dupuy A (2005). Globalization, the World Bank, and the Haitian Economy in Knight, Franjklin W. & Martinez-Vergne, Teresita (2005). Contemporary Caribbean Cultures and Societies in a Global Context. The University of Carolina Press.


Dupuy A (1997). Haiti in the New World Order: The limits of the Democratic Revolution. Westview Press.


Dupuy A (2014). Haiti, From Revolutionary Slaves to Powerless Citizens: Essays on the Politics and Economics of Under-development 1804-1813. Routledge.


Drabek AG (1987). Development Alternatives: The Challenge for NGOs: An Overview of the Issues. World Development 15:9-15.


Ferguson J (2006). Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Duke University Press.


Galway LP, Corbett KK, Zeng L (2012). Where are the NGOs and why? The Distribution of Health and Development NGOs in Bolivia. Globalization and Health.


Hallward P (2007). Damming the Flood: Haiti, Aristide, and the Politics of Containment. London, Verso.


Hintzen P (1989). The Cost of Regime Survival: Racial Mobilization, Elite Domination and the Control of the State in Guyana and Trinidad. Cambridge University Press.


Hintzen P (2018). Towards a New Democracy in the Caribbean: Local Empowerment and the New Global Order in Meeks, Brian & Quinn, Kate (2018). Beyond Westminster in the Caribbean. Ian Randle Publishers.


International Crisis Group (2009). Haiti 2009: Stability at Risk. Latin America and Caribbean Briefing, N°19 Port-au-Prince/Brussels.


Klarreich K, Polman L (2012). The NGO Republic of Haiti: How the International Relief Effort After the 2010 Earthquake Excluded Haitians from their Own Recovery. The Nation.



Kristoff M, Panarelli L (2010). Haiti: A Republic of NGOs). United States Institute of Peace.


Lewis D (2003). NGOs, Organization Culture, and Institutional Sustainability. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Rethinking Sustainable Development 590:212-226


McMichael P, Weber H (2020). Development and social change. Sage Publications.


Microtrends (2020). Port-au-Prince, Haiti Metro Area Population 1950-2020. Retrieved on June 7, 2020.


Moral P (1961). Le Paysan Haitien. Etude sur la Vie Rurale en Haiti. Ed. Fardin.


Pierre-Etienne S (1997). Haiti: L'Invasion des ONGs. Les Editions CIDIHCA.


Pierre-Louis F (2011). Earthquakes, Nongovernmental Organizations, and Governance in Haiti. Journal of Black Studies 42(2):186-202.


Reimann KD (2006). A View from the Top: International Politics, Norms, and the Worldwide Growth of NGOs. Political Science Faculty Publications.


Reno W (1999). Warlord Politics and African States. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.


Riddell RC (2007). Does Foreign Aid Really Work? Oxford University Press.


Schuller M (2009). Gluing globalization: NGOs as intermediaries in Haiti. Political Anthropology Review 32(1):84-104.


Schuller M (2012). Killing with Kindness: Haiti, International Aid, and NGOs. Rutgers University Press.


Schiller NG, Fouron G (2001). Georges Wake up Laughing: Long-Distance Nationalism and the Search for Home. Duke University Press.


Singh R, Barton-Dock M (2015). Haiti: Toward a New Narrative. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.


Trouillot MR (2000). Haiti: State Against Nation: Origins & Legacy of Duvalierism. Monthly Review Press.


Trouillot MR (2001). The Anthropology of the State in the Age of Globalization: Close Encounters of the Deceptive Kind. Current Anthropology 42(1):125-138.


Verner D (2007). The Haitian People: Demographics, Poverty, and Socioeconomic Outcomes and Risks, in Social Resilience and State Fragility in Haiti. The World Bank.


World Bank (2006). Haiti, social resilience and state fragility: A country social analysis. The World Bank, Caribbean Country Management Unit.


World Bank (1998). Haiti: The Challenge of Poverty Reduction. Report No 17242-HA.


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Zanotti L (2010). Cacophonies of aid, failed state-building and NGOs in Haiti: setting the stage for disaster, envisioning the future: Third World Quarterly 31(5):755.