Journal of
Languages and Culture

  • Abbreviation: J. Lang. Cult.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6540
  • DOI: 10.5897/JLC
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 131


Making of the body: Childhood trauma in Toni Morrison’s God Help the Child

MA Yan
  • MA Yan
  • College of International Studies, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.
  • Google Scholar
Liu Li-hui
  • Liu Li-hui
  • College of International Studies, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 09 November 2016
  •  Accepted: 14 February 2017
  •  Published: 31 March 2017


Berry MF, Blassingame JW (1979). Africa, Slavery, and the Roots of Contemporary Black Culture. Chant of Saints: A Gathering of Afro-American Literature, Art, and Scholarship. Ed. Michael S. Harper and Robert B. Stepto. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.


Caruth C (Ed). (1996). Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP.


Clark KB, Clark MP (1939). The Development of Consciousness of Self and the Emergence of Racial Identification in Negro Preschool Children. J. Soc. Psychol. 10(4): 597-609.


Connerton P (1989). How Societies Remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Cooper AM (1986). Toward a Limited Definition of Psychic Trauma. The Reconstruction of Trauma: Its Significance in Clinical work. Workshop series of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Monograph 2. Eds. Rothstein A, Madison CT. US: International Universities Press.


Eyerman R (2001). Cultural Trauma: Slavery and the Formation of African American Identity. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.


Faulkner W (1951). Requiem For a Nun. New York: Random House.


Hesse E, Main M (1999). Second-Generation Effects of Unresolved Trauma in Nonmaltreating Parents: Dissociated, Frightened, and Treatening Parental Behavior. Psychoanal. Inq. 19(4):481-540.


Lacan J (1991). The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book II, The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Teachnique of Psychoanalysis, 1954-1955, ed. by Miller, Jacques-Alain. Trans Tomaselli, Sylvana. New York: Norton.


Leuzinger-Bohleber M, Pfeifer R (2002). Remembering a Depressive Primary Object: Memory in the Dialogue between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Science. Int. J. Psychoanal. 83(3):3-33.


Sánchez-Eppler K (1993). Touching Liberty: Abolition, Feminism, and the Politics of the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Morrison T (1970). The Bluest Eye. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.


Morrison T (1974). Behind the making of the black book. Black World. 23(4):86-90.


Morrison T (1992). Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge, M A: Harvard University Press.


Morrison T (1997). Home. The House That Race Built: Black Americans, U. S. Terrain, ed. by Lubiano, Wahneema. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 3-12.


Morrison T (2015). God Help The Child. New York: Vintage Books.


Van der Kolk BA (2000) Trauma, Neuroscience, and the Etiology of Hysteria: An Exploration of the Relevance of Breuer and Freud's Article in Light of Modern Science. J. Am. Acad. Psychoanal. 28(2):237-262.


Wang SR, Wu XY (2016). Childhood Trauma, Freedom and Peace of Mind in God Help the Child. Contemp. Foreign Lit. 143(1):107-114.


Young A (1996). Bodily Memory and Traumatic Memory. Tense Past: Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory, ed. by Antze, Paul & Lambek, Michael. New York: Routledge.