Coccidiosis is an important protozoal disease of chickens, which causes high economic losses in the poultry industry. A cross sectional study was conducted in and around Guder town, West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia from November 2016 to March 2017 in order to determine the prevalence of coccidiosis and its associated risk factors in local and exotic breed chicken that were kept under free-range and intensive management systems. A total of 384 chickens were randomly selected; the age, sex and managemental system of the chickens were properly recorded. A floatation method was used to detect coccidian oocyst in the faecal samples of the studied chickens. SPSS version 20 software were used for data analysis by applying chi-square test. An Overall prevalence of coccidiosis in poultry was found to be 25.3%. Although higher prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded in exotic breed (28.1%) than in local (22.6%), the difference was statically not significant (P>0.05). The prevalence of coccidiosis was found statistically significant (P<0.05) with in age groups, with 40.1% in <3 months (young) chickens and 13.8% in > 3 months (adult) chickens. Significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence was also observed between the different management system with low prevalence (18.3%) under free range and higher prevalence in (40.5%) intensive system. In the present study, the prevalence of chicken coccidiosis was found to be high and conducting strict biosecurity measures should be useful in the prevention and control of the disease in order to prevent its negative economic impact.
Keywords: Coccidiosis, exotic breed, guder, local breed, prevalence