Prostate cancer is the leading cause of mortality in men worldwide, and dietary fat influence its incidence. This study investigated the effect of feeding Tetracarpidium conophorum seed oil (TCSO) on 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) induced prostate cancer in Wistar rats, the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) in the prostatic tissues. The TCSO was extracted with n-hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus and characterized by gas chromatography. Forty-eight male wistar rats (4 weeks old) were divided into three groups of 16 rats each and fed for 12 weeks. Group A and B animals were fed with diet containing TCSO extract. The animals in Groups A and C received intraperitoneally a dose of MCA (150 mg/kg) after 30 days of feeding. Groups A and B rats were fed with diet containing 10% of extracted TCSO throughout the period of the experiment. Results showed that COX-2 activity significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in Group A (0.71±0.07) and B (0.60±0.05) when compared with Group C (1.17±0.10) with increased COX-2 expression. PPAR-gamma activity was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in Group A (1.89±0.13) and B (2.30±0.15) in comparison with Group C (1.16±0.10) which has the lowest PPAR-gamma expression. TCSO extract delayed latency period in Group A where lumps were observed after 4 weeks of 3-methylcholanthrene induction in comparison with Group C where lumps were observed in less than 2 weeks of MCA induction. Gamma-linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and myristoleic acid were higher in the liver cell membrane of animals in Group A compared to animals in Group C. This work therefore showed that TCSO contains bioactive components that may oppose prostate carcinogenesis induced by MCA.
Key words: Cyclooxygenase-2, linoleic acid, prostate cancer, Tetracarpidium conophorum, polyunsaturated fatty acid.
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