African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6688

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of seasons on chemical composition and fungitoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Staf essential oil

Virlene do Amaral Jardinetti
  • Virlene do Amaral Jardinetti
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
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Kátia R. Freitas Schwan-Estrada
  • Kátia R. Freitas Schwan-Estrada
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
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Aline José Maia
  • Aline José Maia
  • Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste, Brazil.
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Willian Ferreira da Costa
  • Willian Ferreira da Costa
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
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Raphaeli Nascimento de Freitas
  • Raphaeli Nascimento de Freitas
  • Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 19 March 2015
  •  Accepted: 29 October 2015
  •  Published: 24 March 2016

Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and the fungitoxicity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Staf essential oil, obtained in different seasons of the year. Therefore, C. citratus leaves were harvest at four seasons (summer, fall, winter and spring) and essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation of freshly harvested and dried leaves, with a total of eight samples. Yield was expressed in percentage and the fungitoxicity was evaluated in vitro on Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc the causal agent of anthracnose at different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µL mL-1, respectively). The qualitative analysis of essential oil samples was made using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil of freshly harvested leaves had a higher yield (0.25%) in the summer, whereas the essential oil of dried leaves had a better yield (0.48%) in the fall. In in vitro tests, concentrations of 0.75 and 1 µL mL-1 significantly inhibited mycelial growth and sporulation, in all samples. In the quantitative analysis, there was a variation in the levels of oil compounds observed in the different seasons. The most abundant compound in essential oil was citral (neral and geranial mixture) and myrcene. However, the variation in the compounds’ levels had no influence on the fungitoxicity of C. gloeosporiodes (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc.

Key words: Lemongrass, citral, anthracnose, seasons, yield.