African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6688

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of processing method on the quality of palm kernel cake: Chemical composition and nutrient utilization in enzyme supplemented diets

M. Boateng1*, D. B. Okai1, A. Donkoh1 and J. Baah2
1Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 2Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 15 October 2013
  •  Published: 31 October 2013


The feed value of palm kernel cake (PKC) from two expeller sites and two hydrothermal production facilities were assessed using 30 laboratory rats as a model. Following chemical analysis, the PKC were incorporated at 0% (control, CON) or 35% (w/w) into isonitrogenous maize-based diets (2.9% N, DM basis) and fed to individually caged albino rats for 28 days (n=6). All PKC diets included 0.5% (w/w) Alzyme Vegpro (Alltech Canada, Guelph, ON). PKC from expellers (E1, E2) contained more (P<0.05) fatty acids (FA) and less (P<0.05) crude protein (CP) than did PKC from hydrothermal production (H1, H2), averaging 15.8% vs. 7.7% FA and 13.3% vs. 19.7% CP (DM basis), respectively. Lauric, oleic, myristic and palmitic acids were predominant in PKC, accounting for 84% of total FA. E1 and E2 had higher (P<0.05) essential amino acid contents (average 67.1% of total AA) than did H1 or H2 (average 64.1%). Gain and feed efficiency (FE; feed/gain) were similar (P>0.05) between rats fed E1 or E2 diets and those fed CON (2.1 and 2.2 g/day vs. 2.2 g/day; 4.7 and 4.3 g/g vs. 5.3, respectively), but were reduced (P<0.05) in rats fed H1 or H2 diets (1.5 and 1.3 g/d gain; 7.1 and 7.0 FE) compared with CON. This study indicated that expeller-produced PKC could potentially be included in maize-based starter diets for pigs at up to 35% with no adverse effects on growth.

Key words: Amino acid, fatty acid, expeller, hydrothermal.