African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 26 June 2012; 11(51)

June 2012

Genetic variability of camel (Camelus dromedarius) populations in Saudi Arabia based on microsatellites analysis

The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are poorly documented in Saudi Arabia. The present study was conducted to address some of these genetics using four Saudi Arabian camel populations namely; Magaheem (MG), Maghateer (MJ), Sofr (SO) and Shual (SH). Genomic DNA was extracted from the hair roots of 160 camels, 40 individuals from each population. Sixteen...

Author(s): A. H. Mahmoud, M. A. Alshaikh, R. S. Aljumaah, and O. B. Mohammed  

June 2012

Quantification of Bt δ-endotoxins in leaf tissues of tropical Bt maize populations

In Kenya, stem borers destroy an estimated 13.5% of farmers' annual maize harvest. Maize transformed using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) derived genes controls stem borers without negative effects to humans, livestock or the environment. The effectiveness and sustainability of Bt transgenic technology in the control of stem borers depends on the levels of concentration of the Bt δ-endotoxins in plant tissues....

Author(s): Mwimali Murenga, Jeddidah Danson, Stephen Mugo, Stephen M. Githiri and Bramwel Wanjala  

June 2012

Screening and cloning of differentially expressed genes in Dendrobium nobile induced by orchid mycorrhizal fungus promoting the growth

Appropriate mycorrhizal fungi could effectively promote plant growth and development. Our previous research results showed that the growth of Dendrobium nobile was obviously promoted under inoculating one orchid mycorrhizal fungi, Epulorhiza sp. AR-18. To understand the growth-promoting molecular mechanisms, differential displayed real time polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), reverse Northern blot...

Author(s): Li Biao,#, Song Jingyuan#, Guo Shunxing, Zhang Gang  

June 2012

Rubisco-bis-phosphate oxygenase (RuBP)- A potential housekeeping gene for qPCR assays in tea

The present experiment is an effort to find a stable reference gene in Camellia sinensisand Camellia assamica under different biotic and abiotic stresses. This study evaluatethe variation in gene expression across tea leaf tissues in nine experiments. The suitability of 18S rRNA, 26S rRNA, rubisco-bis-phosphatase oxygenase (RuBP) andCamellia tubulin (CaT) as...

Author(s): Bornali Gohain#, Tirthankar Bandyopadhyay#, Priyadarshini Bhorali, Sangeeta Borchetia, Raju Bharalee, Sushmita Gupta, Niraj Agarwala, Neelakshi Bhattacharyya, Ranjit Singh, Prasenjit Bhagawati, Parveen Ahmed, M.C.Kalita and Sudripta Das

June 2012

Regulation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit setting and earliness by gibberellic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid application

The experiment was conducted with the objective of determining the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and gibberellic acid (GA3) spray on fruit setting and earliness of tomato varieties. The experiment consisted of one processing (Roma VF) and one fresh market (Fetan), tomato varieties, three levels of 2,4-D (0, 5 and 10 ppm)...

Author(s): Dandena Gelmesa, Bekele Abebie and Lemma Desalegn

June 2012

Polymorphism at selected defence gene analogs (DGAs) of Musa accessions in Mauritius

One of the major diseases affecting banana is Sigatoka or leaf spot disease that comprises three species, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella eumusae. Plants have a large number of defence related genes which trigger a cascade of defense responses that halt the spread of pathogens. Knowledge of the diversity present in genes related to the defense against Sigatoka disease will...

Author(s): Khoyratty Sher-ullah Shahnoo Sulliman, Michael Pillay and Jaufeerally-Fakim Yasmina  

June 2012

Isolation of AhDHNs from Arachis hypogaea L. and evaluation of AhDHNs expression under exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and water stress

The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil and cash crop all over the world. It is mostly planted in arid and semi-arid regions. To determine the mechanism by which dehydrins (DHNs) are regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in peanuts, three Arachis hypogaea L. dehydrins (AhDHNs) were isolated from peanut plants and sequenced. By blasting the protein sequences of...

Author(s): Liangchen Su, Liu Xu, Yanping Chen and Ling Li

June 2012

Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf explants of Petunia hybrida using thidiazuron

The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybridacultivars was studied. Seeds from ‘Daddy Blue’ and ‘Dreams White’ cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and regenerated shoots were taken as explants. Explants were placed on...

Author(s): Hassan Abu-Qaoud

June 2012

Bacteriological investigation of ground water sources in selected urban areas of district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Microbial contamination of ground water sources is a common problem in all the big cities, which endangers health and impairs quality of living    . To assess this, 39 water samples were collected from highly populated 13 union councils from the urban area of district Mardan. Faecal coliform and Escherichia coli were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative study showed...

Author(s): Naeem Khan, Syed Tasleem Hussain, Abdus Saboor, Nargis Jamila, Shabir Ahmed, Riaz Ullah, Zain Ullah, Samina Ali, Sun-Im Lee and Kyong Su Kim

June 2012

Medium component improvement for β-galactosidase production by a probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CM33

Plackett and Burman statistical design was applied to screen the nutritional factors affecting β-galactosidase production by Lactobacillus fermentum CM33. Accordingly, lactose, tryptone and Tween80 were found to be the positive effective factors at the significant level above 80%. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface plot predicted that the maximum enzyme activity of 49.81 U/100 ml would be...

Author(s): Wattana Sriphannam, Kridsada Unban, Hisashi Ashida, Kenji Yamamoto and Chartchai Khanongnuch    

June 2012

Isolation and characterization of a new mucoid-free Klebsiella pneumoniae strain for 2,3-butanediol production

The secretion of mucoid substances by Klebsiella pneumoniae, a natural 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) hyper-producer, hinders its application in large-scale fermentation because of pathogenicity, fermentation instability, and downstream difficulty. In this study, 14 K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from a waste water treatment plant and their 2,3-BD production efficiencies were assessed with the...

Author(s): Chelladurai Rathnasingh, Duk-Ki Kim, Hyohak Song, Hee Jong Lee, Doyoung Seung and Sunghoon Park  

June 2012

Chemical, physical, microbiological and quality attributes studies on River Nile crayfish

In Egypt, red crayfish has become an important new food source, a cheap and popular source of aquatic food, replacing the expensive marine crustaceans. Chemical, physical, microbiological and quality attributes of red crayfish samples were determined. Results show that total weight of inedible parts was 84.64% of the live weight. Value of raw fresh crayfish yield was higher than that boiled. Cooking loss tail meat for...

Author(s): Emad M. El-Kholie, Seham A. Khader and Mohammed A. T. Abdelreheem      

June 2012

Interactions between Lactobacillus acidophilus strains and the starter cultures, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus during fermentation of goats’ milk

It has been observed that Lactobacillus acidophilus has poor survivability in fermented goats’ milk. In this study, interactions between L. acidophilus and starter cultures during goats’ milk fermentation were investigated using three strains of L. acidophilus: ATCC-11975, LA-5 and NCFM, and the starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubsp. bulgaricus (LB350)...

Author(s): Su Li, Helen Walsh, Sumangala Gokavi and Mingruo Guo      

June 2012

Effect of sorbic acid and some other food preservatives on human serum cholinesterase activity

The effect of some selected food preservatives on serum cholinesterase was determined. It was found that potassium metabisulphite, methyl parabene and propyl parabene caused a significant increase while sacharine, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, copper carbonate and sorbic acid caused a significant decrease in cholinesterase activity. The behavior of serum cholinesterase activity in response to a gradual change in the...

Author(s): Muhammad Aslam Shad, Zafar Iqbal Zafar, Haq Nawaz and Faiza Anwar

June 2012

A gene expression study on strains of Nostoc (Cyanobacteria) revealing antimicrobial activity under mixotrophic conditions

Cyanobacteria are well known for their production of a multitude of highly allelopathic compounds. These products have features such as incorporation of non-proteinogenic amino acids which are characteristics of peptides biosynthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Some of these peptides have acetate-derived moieties, suggesting that their biosynthesis also involves polyketide synthases (PKSs). Among the...

Author(s): B. Nowruzi, R. A. Khavari-Nejad, K. Sivonen, B. Kazemi, F. Najafi and T.Nejadsattari      

June 2012

Modelling the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the presence of irresponsible infectives

In this study, a non-linear mathematical model was proposed and analyzed to study the effect of irresponsible infectives in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in a variable size population. The population was divided into four subclasses, of susceptibles (HIV negatives who can contract the disease), irresponsible infectives (people who are infected...

Author(s): Mohammed I. Daabo, Oluwole D. Makinde and Baba Seidu  

June 2012

Inhibition of protein glycation and advanced glycation end products by ascorbic acid

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation is increased in diabetes mellitus, leading to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Recently, much attention has been focused on natural and synthetic inhibitors to delay the onset or progression of diabetes and its comorbidities. Ascorbic acid (AA) can react with proteins, including hemoglobin and possibly interfere with protein glycation...

Author(s): Hira Zafar, Munir Ahmad Sheikh, Fatma Hussain and Muhammad Arif Maan

June 2012

Gamma radiation sterilization of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from southern Ghana

The African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens, an invasive pest in Africa since 2003, causes damage and poses a threat to the mango and horticultural industry. Its control is therefore needed. Sterilization of males using gamma radiation doses (25, 50 and 75 Gy) as a means of population control was investigated. Irradiation at the pupal stage (about 6 days after pupation) was found to be suitable. It was observed...

Author(s): Christian Ogaugwu, David Wilson, Millicent Cobblah, and Charles Annoh  

June 2012

Toxicity of three selected pesticides (Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron) to the marine fish (turbot Psetta maxima)

The present study aimed to evaluate acute toxicity tests for three selected herbicides: Alachlor, Atrazine and Diuron using turbot flatfish. Larvae were more sensitive than turbot embryos to all pesticides. Median lethal concentrations of the selected pesticides during a 48 h and 96 h exposure for turbot embryos and larvae were, respectively: alachlor, 2177 and 2233; diuron, 10076 and 7826 and atrazine, 11873 and 9957...

Author(s): Mhadhbi Lazhar, Toumi Hela, Boumaiza Moncef and Aloui Néji      

June 2012

Improvement of electrophoresis performance by spectral analysis

This paper describes a new design of standard agarose gel electrophoresis procedure for nucleic acids analysis. The electrophoresis was improved by using the real-time spectral analysis of the samples to increase its performance. A laser beam illuminated the analysed sample at wavelength with the highest absorption of gel components. Thus, DNA band is detected well before it may exits a gel plate. A modified horizontal...

Author(s): Layal Abo Khayal, Rene Kizek and Ivo Provaznik      

June 2012

Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea

The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, and the smell was similar to the aroma of cooked sweet red dates mixed with some of sour....

Author(s): Zhen Zeng#, Chunlan Wu#, Yahui Huang and Juan Wu

June 2012

Assessing the feeding values of leaves, seeds and seeds-removed pods of Moringa stenopetala using in vitro gas production technique

This study presents the feeding values of leaves, seeds and seeds-removed pods ofMoringa stenopetala for ruminants as evaluated by in vitro gas production technique. Feed samples were analyzed for proximate nutrients using official methods. Each feed samples (200 mg) were incubated in buffered rumen fluid for 96 h and fermentation characteristics were estimated using established in vitro gas...

Author(s): Aberra Melesse

June 2012

Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots, stem-bark and leave extracts of Grewia mollis

The roots, stem-bark and leaves of Grewia mollis which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of diarrhea and dysentery by natives in northern part of Nigeria were studied. The ethanol and water extracts of roots, stem-bark and leaves of the plant were subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhii, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp....

Author(s): M. H. Shagal, D. Kubmarawa and Z. Idi  

June 2012

Fine structure of Egyptian buffalo oocytes (Bubalus bubalis) during different in vitro maturation periods using transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

This study was carried out to illustrate the ultrastructure of Egyptian buffalo oocytes through in vitro maturation (IVM) period (24 h). Selected cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were divided into three groups in relation to the time of maturation (8, 16 and 24 h >). After different maturation intervals, the matured oocytes were examined by light and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed...

Author(s): I. A. H. Barakat, and A. R. Alhimaidi