African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 5 February 2007; 6(3)

February 2007

Protocol for isolation of genomic DNA from dry and fresh roots of medicinal plants suitable for RAPD and restriction digestion

A simple and efficient protocol for isolating genomic DNA from fresh and dry roots of medicinal plants was developed. It involves a modified CTAB procedure using 3%CTAB, 4% b-mercaptoethanol, 2 M NaCl and 5% PVP. The extraction was carried out at 70°C. A slight increase in the concentrations of these chemical components and temperature helped in the removal of secondary metabolites and polysaccharides from...

Author(s): Salim Khan, M. Irfan Qureshi, Kamaluddin, Tanweer Alam and M. Z. Abdin

February 2007

Rep-PCR reveals a high genetic homogeneity among Ugandan isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum

Wilting of plants incited by a bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum(Xcm), was first described on Ensete (Ensete ventricosum) and later bananas (Musa species) in the highlands of Ethiopia in 1968. Although the spread outside Ethiopia remained unreported for several decades, an epidemic of the disease on banana in Uganda was observed in 2001, in the districts of...

Author(s): Aritua, V., Nanyonjo, A., Kumakech, F. and Tushemereirwe W.

February 2007

Influence of EDTA and magnesium on DNA extraction from blood samples and specificity of polymerase chain reaction

This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of MgCl2 added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification pattern. EDTA level added to collected blood samples had no significant impact on quantity as...

Author(s): Khosravinia, H. and Ramesha, K. P.y

February 2007

Analysis of binding energy activity of TIBO and HIV-RT based on simple consideration for conformational change

Tetrahydro-imidazo[4,5,l-jk][1,4]-benzodiazepin-2 (1 H)one (TIBO) is a noncompetitive non nucleotide antiretroviral drug with a specific allosteric binding site of HIV-1 RT. The conformational analysis shows that the effect of the drug depends on the potential energy which varied due to the beta rotatable dihedral angles (N6 - C15 - C16 = C17) of the TIBO side chain. The change of binding energy between TIBO and HIV-RT...

Author(s): Viroj Wiwanitkit, M. D.

February 2007

Pseudomonads and symbiotic micro-organisms as biocontrol agents against fungal disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

Experiments were undertaken to assess the antagonistic aptitude of Pseudomonas spp. alone or associated with mycorrhizal fungi on Pythium aphanidermaturm, the causal agent of seedlings damping-off and stem rot of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Evaluation was made using selected strains of pseudomonad (Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. putida and Pseudomonas sp.) isolated...

Author(s): NWAGA Dieudonné ; FANKEM Henri. ; ESSONO OBOUGOU Germain; NGO NKOT Laurette and RANDRIANANGALY Jean Stephan,#

February 2007

Molecular characterisation of Mycovellosiella koepki, the causal agent of yellow spot disease of sugarcane

Yellow spot of sugarcane is a fungal disease caused by Mycovellosiella koepki. Yellow spot symptoms are variable and differ in several sugarcane varieties and the existence of more than one strain of the fungus has been evoked. 29 isolates of the fungus were characterised morphologically and no significant differences were observed on the type, colour and size of the spores. Following restriction digestion of the...

Author(s): V.M. Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya and A. Dookhun-Saumtally

February 2007

Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using poplar leaves as activator material

This study was carried out to determine pin head formation time and mushroom yield ofAgaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves using poplar leaves as activator material. In this study, moreover, in order to follow the evolution of the composting process, daily temperature measurements were taken. According to the results of the study, in both...

Author(s): Hilmi Toker, Ergun Baysal, Osman Nuri Yigitbasi, Mehmet Colak, Huseyin Peker, Hakan Simsek, Ferah Yilmaz

February 2006

Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz) Sac. causal organism of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) leaf spot using plant extracts

In vitro and in vivo antifungal evaluations were carried out on twenty-one plants selected from fourteen families on a folial pathogen of para rubber, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz). Sac. Extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. and Allium sativumL. exhibited total inhibitory effects on the mycelial growth of C. Gloeosporioides. An evaluation of concentration effects was...

Author(s): N. O. Ogbebor, A. T. Adekunle and D. A. Enobakhare

February 2007

Pathological and rhizospherical studies on root-rot disease of squash in Saudi Arabia and its control

Isolations from diseased squash roots revealed the presence of Alternaria tenuis, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, F.  solani and Rhizoctonia solani.  The last two fungi were more  frequent than any of the other fungi. Pathogenicity tests proved that squash plants were highly vulnerable to attack by Fusarium solani andRhizoctonia solani in descending order, during...

Author(s): Lobna Saleh Nawar

February 2007

Characteristic of Cd sorption in the copper tailings wasteland soil by amended dissolved organic matter from fresh manure and manure compost

Potential use of cellulosic wastes as carbon and energy sources in selective media formulations was investigated. Two agar media, Czapek-Dox and Sabouraud’s agar, were modified by substituting their carbon sources with cellulose, sawdust and sugarcane pulps. Then, two fungi; Aspergillus niger ANL301 and Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501, newly isolated from wood-wastes, were transferred to the...

Author(s): Zi-gang Li, Chuan-zhou Bian, and Xiao-lei Jie

February 2007

Preservative property of Aframomum danielli fractions in stored grains

The use of petroleum ether and ethanol fractions of Aframomoum danielli was explored in the preservation of stored grains; soybean, cowpea and maize. Preservation property of A. danielli increased with increase in concentration of fractions used. The ethanolic fractions showed higher activity in reducing fungal infestation than petroleum ether fractions.   Key words:  Preservative...

Author(s): Fasoyiro S. B.

February 2007

Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using hydrogen peroxide

The batch removal of heavy metals lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) from industrial wastewater effluent under different experimental conditions using hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Experimental results indicated that at pH 6.5, pre-treatment analysis gave the following values: Pb 57.63 mg/l, Zn 18.9 mg/l and Cu 13.9 mg/l. Removal of heavy metals was optimum at pH 7.6, a temperature of 30oC, 1.5% hydrogen...

Author(s): M.A.O. Badmus, T.O.K. Audu and B.U. Anyata

February 2006

Potentials of cellulosic wastes in media formulation

Potential use of cellulosic wastes as carbon and energy sources in selective media formulations was investigated. Two agar media, Czapek-Dox and Sabouraud’s agar, were modified by substituting their carbon sources with cellulose, sawdust and sugarcane pulps. Then, two fungi; Aspergillus niger ANL301 and Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501, newly isolated from wood-wastes, were transferred to the...

Author(s): Nwodo-Chinedu, S., Okochi, V. I., Omidiji, O. , Omowaye, O. O. , Adeniji, B. R. ,  Olukoju, D. and Chidozie, F.

February 2006

Long term effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Cissus populnea (Guill. and Per.) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits

In vivo clinical trials involving oral daily administration of crude aqueous extracts ofcissus populnea to grouped sprague-dawley rabbits at two dose levels of 200 and 600 gkg-1 body weight over a 60 day study period revealed that continuous exposure of the plant extract had no damaging effects on the organs of xenobiotic metabolism (liver and kidney). results of levels of serum ast, alt, alkaline...

Author(s): Ojekale, A. B., Ojiako O. A., Saibu, G. M., Lala, A. and Olodude, O. A.

February 2007

Development of immunoassy for the identification of cold shock proteins from diversified microflora

Cold shock response in various organisms is induced by an abrupt downshift in temperature and leads to a dramatic increase in production of a homologous class of cold shock proteins. These proteins are essential for low temperature survival of bacteria. To identify CSP from diversified microflora, immunoassay was developed. A small 14 kDa protein from cold tolerant mutant, CRPF8 of Pseudomonas fluorescenswas...

Author(s): Mahejibin Khan, Satish Kumar and Reeta Goel

February 2007

Assessment of nutritional status of soil supporting coconut (Cocus nucifera) cultivation in some localities of Edo State of Nigeria

Coconut cultivation and information on the nutritional status of soils and fertilizers recommendations for its cultivation are limited in Nigeria. Since a high yield of coconut is related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the status of soils supporting coconut cultivation. The evaluation of the surface soil (0 – 15 cm) and the subsoil (15 – 30 cm) of seven localities...

Author(s): OKERI H. A., ALONGE P. O. and UDOH J. J.

February 2007

Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women in an ante-natal clinic in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria

Women attending ante-natal clinic in Nigeria are routinely screened for HIV/AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted between 2000 and 2004 to investigate the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Braithwalte Memorial Hospital (BMH), Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Data on positive cases of HIV infection within the duration were retrieved from the...

Author(s): Obi, R. K., Iroagba, I. I. and Ojiako, O. A.

February 2007

Some Swazi phytomedicines and their constituents

Ethnobotanical surveys of Manzini and Shiselweni regions of Swaziland were conducted to document new phytomedicines used in Swaziland and to determine their chemical constituents with a view to provide the scientific basis of the use of the remedies in traditional medical practice and as a guide to bioprospecting for drugs. The plants collected in the surveys were extracted with suitable solvents and analysed for...

Author(s): Oluwole O. G. Amusan, Nonhlanhla A. Sukati, Priscilla S. Dlamini, andFortunate G. Sibandze

February 2007

Antioxidant and chemoprotective properties of Momordica charantia L. (bitter melon) fruit extract

Momordica charantia, commonly known as bitter melon, is used as a vegetable in number of countries. Extracts of M. charantia plant, fruit pulp, and seed have been reported to have a wide medicinal use in the traditional medical systems, most often as hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic agents. We have studied the effect of M. charantia,collected from Kazdaglari (Mount Ida) in Balikesir, fruit extract on...

Author(s): Asli SEMIZ and Alaattin SEN

February 2007

Preliminary studies of the antibacterial activities of processed Kenyan and Nigerian tea

The antibacterial activities of extracts in Kenyan and Nigerian tea bags were tested for activity against six organisms; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerea, Salmonella sp., Proteus sp. and Escherichia coli using the agar-gel diffusion method. The result obtained showed that 20% extract of both teas showed antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E....

Author(s): Mbata, T. I.

February 2007

Losses in β-carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips

Slices of plantain (unripe and ripe) of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thickness were fried at 130 ± 5, 150 ± 5 and 170 ± 5°C for 1 and 10 min in refined palm oil. The results obtained showed that β-carotene and vitamin C contents decreased significantly with the elevation of the temperature and duration of frying (p<0.05). The decrease is more important when the thickness...

Author(s): Demasse, Mawamba Adelaide, Gouado, Inocent, Leng, Marlyse, Ejoh, Aba Richard, Njinkoue, Jean Michel and Tchouanguep, Mbiapo Felicite

February 2007

Transfer zone behaviour of As(III), Co(II) and Mn(II) ions on sulphur-hydryl infused cellulose surface

Penetrant transport phenomenon was applied to determine the strive of As(III), Co(II) and Mn(II) ions across the adsorbate/cellulose interface. Penetrant-n and K values calculated for the metals on differentially thiolated (mercaptoacetic acid treated) cellulose surfaces were highest for As(III) at UCF-n, K (3.1278, 0.3064), 0.5MF-n, K (2.4248, 0.4716) and 1.0MF-n, K (1.9136, 0.4885). For Co(II), n and K values were UCF...

Author(s): A.A. Abia and O.B. Didi

February 2007

In vitro effects of metals and pesticides on dehydrogenase activity in microbial community of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) rhizoplane

Effects of heavy metals and pesticides on cowpea (Vigna unquiculata) rhizoplane microbial community were assessed in vitro via dehydrogenase activity. The microbial community was exposed to various concentrations of heavy metals and pesticides in a nutrient broth-glucose-2,3,5-triphenyl chloride (TTC) medium. At 0.2 mM, iron and cadmium stimulated the dehydrogenase activity of the microbial...

Author(s): C. O. Nweke, C. Ntinugwa, I. F. Obah, S. C. Ike, G. E. Eme, E. C. Opara, J. C. Okolo and C. E. Nwanyanwu

February 2007

Biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas pictorum on immobilized with chitin

Biodegradation of phenol using Pseudomonas pictorum (ATCC 23328) a potential biodegradant of phenol was investigated under different operating conditions. Chitin was chosen as a support material and then partially characterized physically and chemically.The pH of the solution was varied over a range of 7 – 9. The maximum adsorption and degradation capacity of bacteria immobilized with chitin at 30oC...

Author(s): Gurusamy Annadurai, Lai Yi Ling and Jiunn-Fwu Lee

February 2007

Dehalogenation and decolorization of wheat straw-based bleachery effluents by Penicillium camemberti

This paper examined the capability of Penicillium camemberti to dechlorinate and decolorize wheat straw-based pulping and bleaching effluents.  In batch tests, the highest removals for CEH (Chlorination-Extraction-Hypochlorite) bleaching sequence [65% organic halides (AOX) 84% color] were obtained with 2 g/l acetate concentration in 10 days under non-shaking conditions. Experiments in shaking flasks...

Author(s): B. K. TaÅŸeli

February 2007

Larvicidal effect of Hemidesmus indicus, Gymnema sylvestre, and Eclipta prostrata against Culex qinquifaciatus mosquito larvae

The larvicidal effect of aqueous extracts of Hemidesmus indicus roots, Gymnema sylvestre and Eclipta prostrata leaves were tested against Culex quinquefasciatuslarvae at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% up to three days. All extracts showed larval mortality. Larval mortality was 100% with the use of 5% concentration of root extract of H. indicus, leaves extracts of G....

Author(s): V. Gopiesh Khanna and K. Kannabiran