African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5232

Full Length Research Paper

Factor analysis as an example of qualitative and quantitative method for modeling hydrogeochemical processes of coastal sedimentary basin of Togo

Seyf-laye Alfa-Sika Mande1,2*, Mingzhu Liu1, Fei Liu1, Djaneye-Bouindjou G2, Moctar L. Bawa2, Honghan Chen1
  1Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China. 2Water Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Lome, BP 1515, Togo.
Email: [email protected], [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 15 July 2011
  •  Published: 23 December 2011



The present study examined the hydrochemical facies of groundwater present in the Coastal Sedimentary basin of Togo around drinking water supply. The study aim at explaining the controlling processes responsible for various facies. The parameters including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, SiO2, SO4 and NO3 in water samples were analyzed and based on standard procedures. The data obtained were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. Two factors were extracted. Factor 1 include EC, Na, Cl, Ca, SO4 and K and explained 59.88% of the total variance, Cl and EC and reflected the signature of saline water incursion. Factor 2 has high loading values of pH,HCO3, SiO2 and NO3 which explained 34.76% of the total variance. pH and HCO3 are the processes of natural rainwater recharge and water-soil/rock interaction process which eventually as acid-rain recharges aquifers in the vicinity. The presence of nitrate in groundwater reflects the anthropogenic impact of domestic sewage, industrial waste, uncontrolled landfill waste, fertilizers, and manure on the study area. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of factor analysis in evaluating hydrochemical processes in coastal and industrial areas.


Key words: Coastal aquifers, factor analysis, water supply, nitrate, hydrochemical modeling.